What size monitor should I buy? To say that a few years ago, 21.5 inches was still an entry level, and now 21.5 inches is a bit small. The size of the data Display has been upgraded and the size centralization has become more and more obvious. The average display Panel size in 2019 was 23.7 inches, an increase of 0.5 inches year-on-year.
Therefore, it is the entry-level configuration to buy a monitor of about 23.8 inches now. Of course, monitors of this size are not expensive, and many products can be purchased for seven or eight hundred yuan. Better upgrade products are basically at the level of more than 1,000 yuan. For the installation, the budget of the Display is not high. After all, the price of a 16G memory is also several hundred yuan.
Sales data in 2019 showed that 23.8 inches surpassed 21.5 inches for the first time, with a market share of 25.5%, and the market share of 21.5 inches fell to 21.5%; it can be seen that consumers also like this size very much. And 21.5 inches has been the same as 17 inches, gradually marginalized.
Among them, 27-inch is the preferred size for mid-to-high-end products, and its market share continues to increase. In 2019, the market share reached 13.9%; the market share of medium and large size segments (23.8 inches and above) reached 52.5%, and the concentration of mainstream sizes has increased. So friends who want to upgrade can choose 27 inches.
For 27-inch products, the resolution of 1080P is not enough, and the resolution of 4K is higher than that of 27-inch products, which is denser, so 2K resolution is very suitable. The author recommends that there are two major concerns for upgrading the display in 2020: 27 inches and 2K resolution, which is the most cost-effective.
On March 17, 2021, Yi Allianz announced the completion of the B+ round of financing of nearly 100 million yuan. This round of financing was led by Chenyi Investment, followed by Langmafeng Venture Capital and old shareholder Dynamic Balance Capital, and Crypto Capital continued to serve as this round of financing. exclusive financial advisor. The funds will be mainly used for sales market expansion and zero-trust technology research and development to accelerate the nationwide coverage of zero-trust security business.
With its technical capabilities and market performance in the field of zero-trust network security, Yi Allianz has once again won the favor of capital. Yi Allianz CEO Yang Zhengquan said that the development of zero trust in the future will show obvious “four modernizations” characteristics, that is, zero trust in applications, zero trust in traditional network security products, standardization of zero trust technology protocols, and zero trust implementation maturity assessment modeling. The Allianz Zero Trust security framework is based on the SDP (Software Defined Boundary) software framework model, and realizes software-defined security by separating control and forwarding. At the same time, according to the security policy, relying on the isolation technology at the data, computing, and network levels, the personal space and the work space are isolated on the user side, so as to ensure the unified entrance of organizational data security and network security. Through the proxy gateway, the application service isolation is solved, the network attack surface is reduced, and the request-based policy control is realized. In the future, Yi Allianz will continue to be creative, actively adapt to and lead the technological changes in network security, and constantly explore the development path, so as to contribute more to the construction of a strong network country.
According to Gartner, the global cloud security services market will reach nearly $12 billion by 2022. And in its “Zero Trust Network Access Market Guide”, it makes a strategic planning assumption: by 2022, 80% of new digital business applications open to ecological partners will be accessed through zero trust network access. Similarly, at the LINKUP+ Cybersecurity Summit, Allianz conducted a survey of hundreds of attendees, and found that 40% of those surveyed said their organization had accelerated the deployment of a zero trust strategy. In just a few years after entering the Chinese market, the momentum of zero trust is very rapid. In this process, Allianz Yi has quickly achieved localization substitution in the field of zero trust with its own excellent technology and comprehensive solutions, showing the strong development of Allianz Easy. Momentum and unlimited potential for the future.
Kong Xiaoming, partner of Fangchenyi Investment, the lead investor in this round, said: China is ushering in the era of mobile office and the Internet of Everything. The popularization of 5G, IOT, edge computing, etc. will accelerate this process, and the concept of “borderless” access will gradually deepen people’s hearts. We continue to be optimistic about the opportunities for a new generation of security protection concepts based on the zero-trust architecture, and we are optimistic about the changing trend of China’s security market from compliance-driven to business-driven. With application access as the core, Yi Allianz has been focusing on the field of zero trust for many years, and has become quite mature in terms of technology, products, channels, cases, etc. The company’s founder has rich industry experience and a stable management style. have a deeper understanding.
Hui Chao, partner of Langmafeng Ventures, a co-investor in this round, said: As an upgrade of the traditional border protection system, the zero-trust security concept will surely transform all security products. Yi Allianz has deep security industry accumulation and a strong management team, and has successfully launched zero-trust security products such as SDP, IAM, and API. At present, the reform of the security industry has begun, and Yi Allianz’s products are highly mature and have obvious first-mover advantages. We are optimistic that Yi Allianz will further expand the market boundary and become an industry leader in the field of zero trust security and cloud security.
Zhu Zhuojun, investment director of Dynamic Balance Capital, a multi-round investor of Yi Allianz, said: The field of network security is an industry that Dynamic Balance Capital has paid attention to for a long time and has been deployed for a long time. In the post-communication and collision, we constantly discovered the advantages and potential of Mr. Yang’s team, and highly recognized Mr. Yang’s strategic vision, diligence, execution ability and entrepreneurial mind, so we are willing to continue multiple rounds of additional investment to support the development of the company. We believe that in the future, Yi Allianz will be able to combine new technical variables, give full play to its first-mover advantage in the zero-trust security track, continue to provide customers with high-quality security services, and become a first-class enterprise in the field of network security. We are also firmly optimistic about the long-term value of Allianz Zero Trust security products in protecting enterprise access security and data assets in an open network environment.
On March 10, Spanish optical fiber POF communication chip and module developer KDPOF announced the launch of a new integrated optical fiber transceiver (FOT) KD9351, which can further reduce the cost of Gigabit (1Gb/s) in-vehicle optical networks. The KD9351 is a small size optical fiber transceiver that integrates transmit and receive optoelectronic devices into a single package that can support 100Mb/s or even 1Gb/s.
(Image credit: KDPOF)
Carlos Pardo, CEO and Co-Founder of KDPOF, said: “Combining the new FOT KD9351 with the existing KD1053 IC results in a 30% cost reduction for 1Gb/s compared to STP (Shielded Twisted Pair). This new integrated device enables Provides higher efficiency and flexibility, paving the way for optical Gigabit Ethernet in vehicles.” The new KD9351 is price competitive, which is important for EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) critical parts or galvanically isolated critical links , which can be applied to secure Ethernet backbones and sensor links for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS).
By integrating the transimpedance amplifier, photodiode, LED driver, and LED into a single device, KDPOF significantly reduces the cost of the new KD9351, shortens the supply chain, and avoids duplication with Tier 1 final testing. In addition, the company simplifies the assembly of the FOT and existing KD1053 ICs and uses a snap-fit connector that eliminates the need for soldering.
The KD9351 again uses low-cost MEMs (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) packages and allows SMD (Surface Mount Device) reflow soldered components to be used in 8 x 7 mm LGA (Land Array Package) components. It is also completely shielded from electromagnetic radiation, and fiber optic connections are made with simple plastic connectors placed on top. The FOT has an operating temperature range of -40°C to +105°C to meet the harsh automotive environment requirements.
It also withstands motor vibration class V2, is waterproof and unsealed. Since the shield is integrated into the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) assembly, the EMC can exhibit excellent performance even when the ECU (Electronic Control Unit) shield is removed. The optics employ Tx (transmit) and Rx (receive) interfaces. Currently, the company has produced samples of the product.
Alps Alpine Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Alps Alpine”) piloted the introduction of AirInput™, a non-touch operation space input solution using an original high-sensitivity electrostatic capacitance sensor, for the new office building of Recruit Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Recruit”). elevator operation Panel and indoor lighting switch. This introduction was done jointly with Cosmos More Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Cosmos More”), which is engaged in the facility management business. Through the introduction of this pilot, the experience and knowledge that can be accumulated in actual use in the field will speed up the productization process of AirInput™ in the broad market. Meet the needs of public spaces that are reluctant to touch due to the risk of infectious diseases such as the new coronavirus, and strive to contribute to the new normal society.
In the input operation of public spaces such as elevator switches, toilet flush switches, and tram ticket machines, for reasons such as “I don’t know who has touched it”, “the operating area is not clean”, “my hands are dirty”, etc. Conflict scenarios abound. With the recent spread of the new crown epidemic around the world, this sense of resistance is stronger than before. Although epidemic prevention and control measures such as alcohol disinfection have been adopted in public facilities, the new normal society has put forward higher requirements for epidemic prevention and control in public spaces.
Since 2008, Alps Alpine has been working on the development of a spacer input device using an original high-sensitivity electrostatic capacitance sensor. In January 2020, at the “CES2020”, the world’s largest Electronic equipment trade fair, held in Las Vegas, it was specifically proposed that various types of electronic equipment used in medical and nursing sites, public transportation, etc. need to be fully considered in terms of hygiene. Remote input solutions for live scenarios*1.Last year, with the spread of the new crown epidemic, in order to realize the productization of this solution as soon as possible, we accelerated the market research, and also applied for such a product series that uses high-sensitivity electrostatic capacitance sensors to realize remote input.AirInput™ trademark.
Last summer, we developed a prototype for teleportation for elevators. In the process of providing the solution, the operability of the prototype and its perfection as a solution were highly praised by Recruit. This time, the company was going to renovate its base to reflect the concept of a new era office building, so it was opened for use in April. Our company’s AirInput™ Panel and AirInput™ Switch were introduced on a pilot basis in the new office building in Kudanshita, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, and the project has now been put into use.
AirInput™ Panel is used for indoor lighting operation switch, which can perform non-contact lighting ON/OFF switching. When the finger is about 3cm close to the icon of the floor area where the lighting operation is to be performed, a circle indicating the selection will appear. When the circle is fully circled, the lighting ON/OFF operation can be performed. If you leave your finger before the circle is full circle, you can cancel the confirmation operation to prevent misoperation.
AirInput™ Switch is used in the elevator operation panel. Put your finger about 4cm away from the number of the floor you want to go to, and a faint light will be emitted around the number to indicate the selection. Continue to bring your finger close to about 2cm, the operation will be confirmed and the light will continue to light up in white. After reaching the selected floor, the light will automatically turn off. The waiting hall outside the elevator is also equipped with the same product with the up and down arrow icon, which enables a series of input operations required to move in the elevator without touching it. The product launched this time realizes the non-contact of the old elevator installed 30 years ago. Both products include functions such as icon action based on finger distance and determination of operation waiting time, enabling realistic and comfortable operation even in non-contact mode. In addition, the AirInput™ Switch can also be operated with actual touch.
In addition, AirInput™ Switch adopts our company’s unique decorative printing technology, and the elegant bright black interprets the high-end feeling of the elevator. This technology uses a unique fusion thermal transfer printing machine, and the film solid ink of about 1μm is hot-melted and colored, and multi-layer ink stacking printing is performed, which can be realistically reproduced on low-cost and easy-to-form materials such as resins. The look and feel of wood, metal, etc. that are difficult to form intricately. By using the special ink developed by our company, the invisible icon function that illuminates the icon from the back to highlight the icon is realized. A circle of illumination can be formed when the finger approaches and confirms the operation. In particular, the printing machine adopts an on-demand printing machine that does not require plate making. Printing can be started quickly after the printing data is completed, and color change is also very convenient, so it can quickly and flexibly respond to customer requirements.
Alps Alpine has advantages in the field of HMI (Human Machine Interface) technology. In order to make the user experience of remote input more comfortable, using the know-how accumulated over many years, in product development, it has pursued the operation icons, Display methods, and operation parts. decorative details. Through this pilot introduction, the issues in actual use and the operability from the user’s point of view are verified, so as to further optimize AirInput™ and strive to achieve productization within this year. In addition to elevator and lighting operation applications, we will simultaneously explore other markets and contribute to the new normal society by providing users with safe and comfortable space input solutions.
The “2021 China Automotive semiconductor Industry Conference” hosted by Gasgoo was grandly held in Shanghai Auto City Ruili Hotel from June 29th to 30th, 2021. The conference lasted for two days and focused on the current situation of core shortage of Chinese car companies, the security construction of supply chain localization, the construction and design of vehicle chip platform, the chip requirements and application cases in the field of autonomous driving, intelligent cockpit, and the application of Power semiconductors in the three power semiconductors. Applications and topics such as chip testing and functional safety are discussed.
The conference attracted 300+ offline and 15,000+ online guests. Including Su Shi Yi Te, Black Sesame Intelligent Technology, Xinwang Microelectronics, Arcsoft Technology, Nanoxin Microelectronics, Longsys Electronics, Su Shi Zhongbo, Arrow Optoelectronics, Hongke Electronics, COGNATA, Rulamat, Zhiyuan 18 ecological partners, such as Electronics, Chuansu Microwave, Ansys, Chaojie Communication, Nengyun Logistics, Zhongjutai Optoelectronics, Haolisen and Prady Technology, as well as OFweek Weike Network, Phoenix Network Automobile, eetop, EV Vision, 16 cooperative media including First Electric Network, Electric State, Hexun, CDC Auto, Electronic Technology Application Network, Global Automotive Network, and Power Battery Network gave all-round support and coverage to the conference.
Ms. Zhou Xiaoying, chairman of the conference and president of Gasgoo, gave an opening speech for the conference. After experiencing the impact of the epidemic, the overall performance of the Chinese auto market this year has exceeded the surprises of many colleagues in the auto industry. The market is very strong, but the problem of chip shortages is particularly prominent, which has a huge impact on the Chinese market. The new energy market is much better than expected, and it is developing rapidly. Chinese independent brands are making strong efforts on the smart car track. In this context, by 2030, the entire industry will usher in a huge change in the industrial chain.
(Zhou Xiaoying, President of Gasgoo)
Chen Qing, a global associate partner of McKinsey, gave a speech titled “Automotive Software and Electronics Trend Outlook in 2030 and Its Impact on the Global Semiconductor Industry”. Automotive electronics and automotive software are the basis for the implementation of the new four modernizations. Therefore, according to the current situation, it is predicted that the automotive industry will be relatively stable within 10 years to 2030, and there will be neither too much growth nor too much. However, under the condition that the vehicle is stable, the automotive software electronic and electrical architecture will grow by at least 5% per year.
(Chen Qing, McKinsey Global Associate Managing Partner)
XU Yingchun, vice president of the ideal car computing power platform & OS, pointed out in the speech “Intelligent car high computing power platform layout” that the ideal car computing power platform will be opened in the future, so that other manufacturers will use the same platform. The bottom layer of this platform will be compatible with different hardware chips, including chips for autonomous driving and general-purpose computing power chips. The goal is to create an open ecosystem platform integrating software and hardware to promote the innovation and development of the entire industry.
(Xu Yingchun, Vice President of Ideal Auto Computing Platform & OS)
Yang Yuxin, Chief Marketing Officer of Black Sesame Intelligent Technology, pointed out in “High-Performance Autonomous Driving Chips Empowering the Intelligent Transformation of Vehicles” that autonomous driving is not simply the automotive industry itself, but more of the basic technology of the smart transportation sector in the city, focusing on different scenarios , including open urban roads, semi-open highways, closed scenes, autonomous driving technology based on artificial intelligence, perception technology, vehicle-road collaboration, and edge computing will promote its development. From the perspective of the development of the automobile industry, the innovation in the traditional automobile era is concentrated in the mechanical structure, fuel development and manufacturing. The automotive industry has begun to enter the era of autonomous driving, and the original field of innovation has entered into core chips, artificial intelligence technology, electronic architecture and battery technology. When we truly enter the era of driverless cars, after cars become infrastructure, more innovations will revolve around big data, artificial intelligence, and traffic operation management.
(Yang Yuxin, Chief Marketing Officer, Black Sesame Smart Technology)
Dr. Zhang Xiang, chief engineer of functional safety of the National New Energy Vehicle Technology Innovation Center, delivered a speech on “Functional Safety Requirements and Design Overview of Automotive-Regulated Chips”, in which he proposed that with the continuous improvement of electronic vehicles, the amount of automotive chips will continue to increase. In order to ensure The safety of relevant traffic participants and drivers, pedestrians and passengers is constantly being enhanced. Usually considered is the requirement of zero defects, which is a goal pursued when designing chips. On the basis of reliability, with the continuous improvement of functions and the improvement of system complexity, more and more attention has been paid to functional safety. It is necessary to have a relatively strong response to the systematic failures and random hardware failures that occur during the use of the chip. To control, functional safety has become a mandatory requirement, a mandatory requirement in a sense.
(Dr. Zhang Xiang, Chief Functional Safety Engineer, National New Energy Vehicle Technology Innovation Center)
Bao Haisen, director of Shanghai HiSilicon Strategy and Business Development Department (vehicle field), pointed out in “Insights into China’s Automotive Semiconductor Industry Trends” that from the perspective of the semiconductor industry, summarizing the development of the semiconductor industry in the past few decades, before 2000, semiconductor was a dedicated field , aerospace, military and high-integration home appliances are mainly, but after 2000, it was driven by computer notebooks. In the past ten years, it was driven by mobile phones, tablet computers and cloud computing. Now facing a new decade, it may bring new Challenge, what is the killer app? It could be edge computing, it could be AI, it could even be cars. In particular, China’s automobile intelligence is already in a semi-leading position in the world, so it is possible that our automobiles will become the driving force leading the development of the next generation of semiconductors.
(Bao Haisen, Director of Shanghai HiSilicon Strategy and Business Development Department (Vehicle Field))
Chen Feng, deputy general manager of Arcsoft Technology’s Vision Vehicle Business Group, gave a speech titled “Vision Technology Collaborates with Vehicle Chips to Enable Safe and Intelligent Driving Experience”. He believes that the interaction method, the original car has no intelligence, it is all hand-touch buttons and multi-touch. Then with the development of smart phones, now we also see touch screens in cars, and we see voice interaction, line of sight interaction, and gesture interaction. The key technology of the car is from the original chassis design, distributed motor system, electronic and electrical architecture, and now it has become a domain controller, a centralized computing unit, just like a mobile phone, a smart phone has basically become the main SOC chip as the processing The center part, so there are a lot of analogies between the car and the smartphone.
(Chen Feng, Deputy General Manager of Arcsoft Technology Vision Vehicle Business Group)
Lu Hengyang, FAE Director of Shanghai Xinwang Microelectronics, brought the sharing of “Advanced Layout: Creating High-end Chip Solutions for Vehicle Regulations”. In the layout of automotive electronics, we know that there are three major upgrades in the automotive industry: networking, intelligence, and electrification. Automotive electronics is also a key factor supporting the upgrading of the automotive industry. The proportion of automotive electronics is also very high, and it also accounts for more than 50% of vehicle parts. MCU is very, very important in automotive electronics. In traditional fuel vehicles, the value of MCU is very, very high, accounting for 23%. Even in new energy vehicles, MCU is second only to power semiconductors, reaching 11%. . At present, the localization rate of MCU is very, very low. At present, MCU is also used as the core device of auto parts, and it is still dominated by foreign brands. Since the second half of last year, the shortage of chips has given us an opportunity to localize.
(Lu Hengyang, Director of Shanghai Xinwang Microelectronics FAE)
Chen Weiliang, senior manager of the automotive business department of SUTIIT, gave a speech titled “Only Quality and Reliability Can Build Consumers’ Confidence in Autonomous Driving”. With the advent of autonomous driving, there are many environments that need to be built. Because autonomous driving requires a large amount of information connection and computing power, computing functions and infrastructure have become very important. Including the connection of vehicle-to-vehicle information, including vehicle-to-person detection, including vehicle-to-infrastructure construction, especially when autonomous driving is running, if we drive on elevated roads because of infrastructure construction, even if there is a few milliseconds of disconnection In terms of autonomous driving, serious traffic accidents will occur, so 5G infrastructure is actively being built in advanced countries around the world, including our side. The other is the vehicle-to-cloud, including the upload of information, the transmission of vehicle conditions, and road conditions. Only when these complete series are connected will an information connection for autonomous driving be established.
(Chen Weiliang, Senior Manager of Su Shiyite Automobile Business Office)
The sharing brought by Zhao Lin, the marketing manager of Nanochip’s isolation product line, is “Focus on the domestic replacement of high-end analog chips to help the security of the new energy vehicle supply chain”. The block diagram of the main electric drive of the car, you can see that the main electric drive of the new energy vehicle now has a peak power of 250 kilowatts. It is one of the most important modules in the new energy vehicle, because the optimization of its efficiency and energy density directly affects the The battery life of new energy vehicles. The battery life is also an ability that the client is very interested in.
(Zhao Lin, Marketing Manager of Nanochip Micro-Isolation Product Line)
Zhang Pu, Senior Marketing Manager of Infineon Automotive Electronics, talked about “Infineon Helps the Development of Advanced Smart Cockpits”. Touch technology is a very important technology for human-computer interaction in smart cockpits. There are several very important trends in touch. First of all, the screens in the car are getting bigger and bigger, and the shapes are getting more and more special. This requires that the touch chip can support the needs of various shapes, sizes, and even special-shaped screens. In terms of touch screens, we have seen many advanced functions, such as pressure sensing, floating touch, sound feedback, and vibration feedback functions are increasingly mentioned by OEMs, and the latest touch chips are also required to be supported.
Zhao Yijie, senior product marketing manager of Qualcomm China, gave a speech on “Promoting Intelligent Innovation in Vehicles in the 5G Era”. Since 2002, it has gradually changed from 2G to 3G, to 4G, to 5G. Starting to enter the new field of autonomous driving in 2020, the fourth-generation intelligent cockpit system platform has been released in 2021. On this basis, basic technologies ranging from CPU to computer vision, it can be said that in addition to the technologies quoted from the mobile phone, there are also technologies independently developed for specific needs in the automotive field, starting from ADAS, to virtualization, functional safety and so on.
The theme of the speech brought to us by Yang Yuliang, Pan Asia Automotive Hardware Development Manager, is “Win-Win Strategy for the Localization of Auto Enterprises’ Chips under the New Situation”. He pointed out that for the background, the growth rate of automotive electronics is very obvious. In 2020, China will import nearly 300 billion US dollars of chips, more than twice that of oil. Automotive chips have maintained a growth rate of more than 10 from 2016 to the present, but 99% of the chips are imported. Of course, the “14th Five-Year Plan” also mentioned chip planning. He attended the company’s party congress that morning and still mentioned this meeting, so the whole environment is relatively friendly to localization.
(Yang Yuliang, Pan Asia Automotive Hardware Development Manager)
Chen Dawei, deputy chief engineer of China Electronics Standardization Research Institute, gave a speech on “Access Standards and Approaches for Localized Vehicle-Specification Chips”. In the case of domestic chips, the design of high-reliability chips is still a bit lacking. Vehicle-specific chips are designed, not tested. The control of the production process, because a chip may have a certain process, a wire frame, and a cost requirement, and the final production line to be selected is exactly in line with TS16949, so this choice is relatively small. Sometimes there is no 16949 certification, and that has to be done.
(Chen Dawei, Deputy Chief Engineer, China Electronics Standardization Institute)
Geng Xiaojie, technical assistant to the president of Cadence Asia Pacific and Japan, pointed out in “Viewing Automotive Semiconductor Market Trends from the Perspective of EDA” that in the automotive semiconductor market, new energy vehicles and hybrid energy vehicles bring power management, and new car-making forces are more radical. A lot of new technologies are used in this, and these technologies are realized through semiconductors. The other is ADAS. L2 autonomous driving and live driving have become very popular, not only for processing chips, but for data perception, calculation, decision, and perception, which also brings the needs of radar, lidar, infrared and other chips.
(Geng Xiaojie, technical assistant to the president of Cadence Asia Pacific and Japan)
Du Dianrong, Director of Automotive System Applications at Ambarella Semiconductor, gave a speech on “Application of Ambarella AI Vision Chip Solutions in Smart Cars”. Ambarella’s three core IPs: video encoding, which is Ambarella’s housekeeping skills. Image processing, 15 years of experience in image processing and video compression, covering multiple markets, enabling high-resolution video processing with low power consumption. CVflow-DNN, AI accelerator, CVflow-Compared with general-purpose platforms such as CPU, GPU or FPGA, the performance/watt ratio is the best, and it can be done at a more reasonable cost. CVflow is an open platform that supports all mainstream neural network frameworks on the market. Neural networks trained under these frameworks can basically be deployed on the platform with one click. Because it provides a set of very useful neural network conversion tools.
(Du Dianrong, Automotive System Application Director, Ambarella Semiconductor)
Dr. Shu Jie, senior manager of ARM China’s automotive market, proposed in “Computer Architecture and Technology of Software-Defined Vehicles” that software-defined vehicles will be extended to edge applications in the future, such as software-defined vehicles and software-defined industrial automation systems. There will be corresponding technical support and, for example, heterogeneous computing platforms, which are required for software-defined automobiles, as well as operating systems for security, real-time operating systems, and real-time program managers. Defined automotive, software-defined industrial systems an applied technology.
(Dr. Shu Jie, Senior Manager of ARM China Automotive Market)
Zhou Jin, Deputy General Manager of ROHM Semiconductor Technology Center, brought us the “Introduction to the Development Trend of Third-Generation Semiconductors and Main Vehicle Applications”. The so-called xEV is a general term for all kinds of electric vehicles. You can see the mild hybrid system with a relatively obvious increase. It uses the energy recovery of the engine to improve the efficiency, and the above is the plug-in hybrid. The green card in Shanghai is currently. Plug-in hybrid and pure electric, it can be seen that the electrification of automobiles is an obvious trend in the future. Even if the power source is powered by the engine or gasoline, the power system will be integrated into the power system. This is the future demand for power devices will skyrocket. The source of the forecast.
(Zhou Jin, Deputy General Manager of ROHM Semiconductor Technology Center)
Lu Tao, manager of the zero emission (ZEV) system solution of ON Semiconductor’s Power Solutions Department, gave a speech on “Semiconductor Innovative Packaging Technology Helps Automotive Development”. Due to the rapid development of new energy vehicles, the requirements for the development of reliability of power devices will be forced on automobiles. Because of the terminal application, the reliability of the final application device will also be improved. When it comes to packaging, we have to mention the AQG324 standard, which itself is a standard test for electric new energy vehicle power modules, mainly for the inspection of packaging. It studies various factors of major demands or failures of power devices, and combines the corresponding clauses of IEC. It is not a new standard created out of thin air. It is mainly aimed at automotive new energy applications and studies various failures. Integrate it.
(Lu Tao, Manager of Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) System Solutions, Power Solutions Department, ON Semiconductor)
Liu Peng, senior business development manager of NXP, gave a speech on “Vehicle Network Architecture and Solutions in the Era of Automotive Ethernet”. In the past few years, car companies have undergone a huge structural change. Last year, domestic car companies started. I believe that most of the mid-to-high-end models of domestic car companies will follow this architecture, which is the domain controller architecture. This architecture will have a central gateway and possibly 1-2 domain controllers. For example, the cockpit has a domain controller, ADAS has a domain controller, and foreign countries may put TBOX and V2X together and also count as a domain controller.
(Liu Peng, NXP Senior Business Development Manager)
Mao Guanghui, Xilinx Automotive Electronics System Architect and Marketing Manager, shared his speech on “Going to the Future, Adaptive Computing Platform Accelerates Autonomous Driving Innovation”. As a semiconductor manufacturer, semiconductors have a certain cycle, which will go through design, verification, testing, and packaging. However, the development of AI is very rapid. In addition to AI, other technical software and hardware iterations are also very fast. The development trend of the industry In the next two or three years, the front-view camera will become the standard configuration. In the future, from the European standard to the national standard certification system, it will also have the AB function. In addition, Lidar will gradually see the SOP plan coming out from this year. Lidar is also an upgrade of automatic driving, and it will also be installed in vehicles slowly, and the detection distance will move towards higher, farther and clearer detection targets. It can be seen that the entire development is evolving towards the level of autonomous driving.
(Mao Guanghui, Xilinx Automotive Electronics System Architect and Marketing Manager)
Zhou Yi, director of basic hardware of Tianji Automobile, gave a speech on “Domain Control Hardware Development under Chip Upgrade”. The domain control hardware development under the chip upgrade is mainly in three aspects. 1. The reform and persistence of the electronic control system. 2. The new trend of electronic control hardware design. 3. New challenges in domain control hardware design. The first change is the centralization of the EE architecture. The entire architecture trend is also a process from distributed architecture to domain control and finally to Zone. The second change, software as a service, is the SOA architecture that is very hot now. The third change is the generalization of sensing and execution. We may have 80-100 controllers in a car now, and each controller is different, but abstractly, for a typical embedded system, there are input , there are controls, there are outputs, there are hard-wired signal inputs for inputs, there are inputs from the bus, and even other inputs.
(Zhou Yi, Director of Basic Hardware of Skyline Automotive)
Sydney, Australia, and Irvine, CA, USA, November 2, 2021 – Morse Microelectronics, the fabless semiconductor company reinventing Wi-Fi for the Internet of Things (IoT)?, today announced the industry’s first Wi-Fi CERTIFIED ™ HaLow™ solution and the industry’s first 8MHz reference design, demonstrating the company’s technology leadership.Morse Microelectronics is the official test platform supplier for Wi-Fi HaLow and helps promote the Wi-Fi Alliance®Availability of Wi-Fi HaLow 802.11ah certified programs. Morse Microelectronics actively promotes the Wi-Fi Alliance certification, and has been in a rapid development stage in the Wi-Fi HaLow certification work.
Morse Microelectronics is one of the first semiconductor companies to offer certifiable Wi-Fi HaLow chipsets, modules and reference designs now available for customer deployment. Upcoming IoT products based on Morse’s Wi-Fi HaLow solution, ready for Wi-Fi certification, will benefit from multi-vendor interoperability, accelerated time-to-market and consumer acceptance.
Michael De Nil, co-founder and CEO of Morse Microelectronics, said: “The breakthrough potential of extending the already transformative nature of Wi-Fi to the sub-1 GHz frequency band cannot be underestimated. We appreciate the leadership of the Wi-Fi Alliance in enabling a new era of long-range, low-Power and high-capacity Wi-Fi HaLow experiences for consumers. As a leading Wi-Fi HaLow innovator, we have invested heavily in R&D , to ensure there are SoCs and modules on the market that offer extraordinary benefits unlike any Wi-Fi or LPWAN technology today. For consumers and enterprises, from smart home, smart city to industrial markets and everything in between of all applications, adding Wi-Fi HaLow in sub-1GHz bands will be a game changer.”
“By actively participating in the development of the Wi-Fi Alliance’s certification program, companies like Morse Microelectronics are helping to accelerate the market’s acceptance of Wi-Fi HaLow,” said Kevin Robinson, vice president of marketing for the Wi-Fi Alliance. , as a standards-based long-range, low-power IoT connectivity solution. Wi-Fi CERTIFIED HaLow devices and products enable smart buildings, smart cities, industrial and Various applications in the agricultural environment have greatly expanded the scope of WIFI application scenarios.”
Industry-leading Wi-Fi HaLow Solutions
Morse Microelectronics is a leading supplier of Wi-Fi HaLow system-on-chip (SoC) and module products. These SoCs and modules, combined with the company’s easy-to-use evaluation kits and reference designs, give early access partners and key customers the opportunity to evaluate the market-leading throughput, energy efficiency and extended range of the company’s Wi-Fi HaLow solutions.
Morse Microelectronics’ diverse product portfolio of SoCs, modules, software, IP and patents has played a key role in accelerating the deployment of Wi-Fi HaLow across multiple industries. Morse’s comprehensive Wi-Fi HaLow portfolio includes the industry’s smallest, fastest and lowest power IEEE 802.11ah compliant SoCs. The MM6104 SoC supports 1MHz, 2MHz and 4MHz channel bandwidth. The higher-performance MM6108 SoC supports 1 MHz, 2 MHz, 4 MHz, and 8 MHz bandwidth, capable of delivering tens of Mbps throughput and supporting high-definition video streaming. These Wi-Fi HaLow SoCs offer 10 times the range, 100 times the area and 1000 times the capacity of traditional Wi-Fi solutions.
Wi-Fi CERTIFIED HaLow dedicated platform
Morse Microelectronics’ Wi-Fi HaLow platform is designed to comply with the IEEE 802.11ah standard and is expected to redefine low-power, long-range Wi-Fi connectivity for the Internet of Things. The MM6108 and MM6104 SoCs provide a single-chip Wi-Fi HaLow solution that integrates the radio, PHY and MAC, delivering data rates from tens of Mbps to hundreds of Kbps over the farthest range. The radio supports operation in the sub-GHz ISM band between 850 MHz and 950 MHz worldwide.
The MM6108 and MM6104 RF interfaces provide the option of using an on-chip amplifier for typical low-power, low-cost IoT devices, or an additional external PCB-mounted power amplifier (PA) or front-end module (FEM) for ultra-long-range applications . The RF receiver uses a highly linear low noise amplifier (LNA).
Morse Microelectronics’ low-power IC design, combined with the IEEE 802.11ah standard, can extend sleep time, reduce power consumption of battery-operated client devices, and achieve higher performance than other existing IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n/ac/ax Generations of longer battery life.
Key Features of Morse Microelectronics Wi-Fi CERTIFIED HaLow Platform
● Supports radios in frequency bands below 1GHz worldwide
● On-chip power amplifier, supports external PA/LNA option
● Power Management Unit (PMU), which supports ultra-low power operation mode
● WPA3 security
● SDIO 2.0 and SPI host interface options
● GPIO/UART/I2C/PWM peripheral options
● 6 mm x 6 mm QFN48 package
How to get samples
Morse Microelectronics’ Wi-Fi HaLow evaluation kit, along with samples of the MM6108 and MM6104 SoCs and modules, are now available to key customers. For Morse Microelectronics’ Wi-Fi HaLow solutions and how to order evaluation kits, visit www.morsemicro.com.
Under the proposed two-year phased approach, the Air Force will provide nearly half of the additional 14 cyber mission forces. (U.S. Cyber Command Office of Public Affairs)
WASHINGTON: The U.S. Air Force is expected to provide U.S. Cyber Command with the bulk of the new cyber mission force proposed in the FY 2022 budget, the first increase in the U.S. cyber operations force in nearly a decade.
The size and composition of the 133 Cyber Mission Forces, designed in 2012, have remained largely unchanged since their inception, and the current and then-threat landscape has changed significantly, including a significant increase in the number of cyberattacks against the United States.
As C4ISRNET reported, the U.S. defense budget for FY 2022 proposes a phased increase of 14 cyber mission forces between FY 22 and FY 24. The defense budget release in late May 2021 did not specify the details of the new cyber mission forces or what services they would provide.
The current plan is for the Air Force to provide about 40 percent of the new cyber mission force, with the Army and Navy taking up about 30 percent of the roles, according to a U.S. Cyber Command spokesman, who noted that plans are ongoing and that certain follow-up may also occur. Variety.
“As nation-state and non-state actors continue to increase their cyber and information-related activities; these additional cyber mission forces enable U.S. Cyber Command to ensure that our operations, capabilities, and forces remain agile, flexible, and able to respond to and Disrupt our adversaries and ensure we maintain an edge in this strategic competition,” a spokesman for U.S. Cyber Command said.
Phase 1 of the FY 2022 addition includes two cyber operations task groups — primarily performing cyber operations on behalf of combatant commands in the offensive domain — and two cyber support groups that provide cyber operations mission groups with intelligence, mission planning, and other necessary support. The Air Force will also provide US Space Command with an integrated cyber operations planning unit separate from the 14 groups to provide overall support.
Created in 2017, these planning cells work locally with planners from each combatant command and serve as satellite offices for service-specific networks that control cyber forces. Their goal is to better integrate cyber planning with operational planning in the land, air, sea and space domains.
One of the reasons for the growth of the U.S. cyber mission force is the addition of space capabilities by the U.S. Department of Defense. In the past few years, it created the U.S. Space Command and Space Force. The DoD’s budget request states that the additional cyber mission force it calls for will address increased cyber operations needs and cyber support for space operations.
“In the future, we have to take into account the growing importance of space,” U.S. Cyber Command Commander General Paul Nakasone said in testimony before the House Armed Services Committee in May 2021 on the growth of the cyber mission force.
To date, the U.S. Air Force has been responsible for operations for U.S. Space Command under its Joint Force Headquarters-Network system. Each Joint Force Headquarters-Network is led by a Service Network Commander who then plans, synchronizes, and executes operations for the designated combatant command.
At this time, the U.S. Space Force has no plans to increase any cyber mission force personnel, officials said. Instead, they will focus on installation-level networks and securing space-based networks.
Intel and Red Hat have demonstrated through a series of innovative examples today how their strategic partnership has achieved their goal of delivering automated, cloud-native infrastructure for new 5G services. Based on the groundwork that was officially launched in January this year and the new Intel for network transformation? Selected solutions, including a new reference design for virtual radio access networks (vRAN), now partners can benefit from a more complete solution and faster time-to-value to go from cloud to network to Change at the edge.
“Red Hat is committed to driving the evolution of 5G through cloud-native, open-source innovation,” said Honoré LaBourdette, vice president, Telecom, Media, Entertainment at Red Hat. “Working closely with our strong partner ecosystem, we empower our customers to deliver cloud-native 5G-accelerated infrastructure and system resources, among other benefits. Supporting flexible deployment models makes it easier to adopt edge-to-cloud multi-cloud and hybrid-cloud architecture strategies.”
Why it matters: Red Hat and Intel are committed to faster migration of 5G, network innovation, and related capabilities into upstream open source projects through R&D. Intel and Red Hat’s strategic partnership to combine Red Hat’s OpenShift with 3rd Gen Intel with built-in artificial intelligence (AI) acceleration? Xeon? Scalable processors, Intel? Ethernet network adapter, Intel? FlexRAN Reference Software and Intelligent Edge Computing Software Toolkit Intel? Smart Edge Open and other products have been organically combined.
Communications Service Providers (CoSPs) and enterprises need a cloud-native approach across the network to increase flexibility, agility, and scale. The collaboration between Intel and Red Hat can simplify the challenges and complexities of delivering innovation from the cloud to the network to the edge, helping enterprises provide cloud partners with better network visibility and control. An example of this is the co-engineered carrier portfolio – for access edge deployments to help manage the lifecycle of Intel accelerators for cloud-native RAN DU deployments on commercial Kubernetes distributions.
How it’s used: Innovative solutions developed by partners using the technology include:
Altiostar: Altiostar utilizes co-designed Intel? Smart Edge Open Operators for Red Hat OpenShift, launched its cloud-native Open RAN (O-RAN) on Intel FlexRAN and Red Hat OpenShift. This 5G solution, based on OpenShift with zero-touch provisioning, will pave the way for other O-RAN solutions. This solution uses Intel FlexRAN, Intel Xeon Scalable processors and Intel? Ethernet 800 series network adapters. It helps customers achieve high-performance, highly optimized and time-sensitive 5G O-RAN solutions.
Casa Systems: Casa Systems’ proprietary 5G multi-access network solution is the first cloud-native offering that enables service providers and enterprises to deploy personalized private networks with enhanced security, application customization and differentiated performance. Based on Red Hat OpenShift solutions powered by Intel Xeon Scalable processors and Intel Ethernet 800 Series network adapter technology, Casa’s unique and proprietary approach to 5G multi-access and multi-domain network architecture breaks down previous technical barriers and simplifies More scalable, dynamically adjustable, secure and reliable proprietary 5G network deployment.
Dell Technologies Service Edge: In April, Dell launched the Dell Technologies Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) reference architecture based on Intel Intelligent Edge. Dell MEC controllers are integrated with Red Hat OpenShift, allowing operators to leverage public or private clouds to integrate solutions into the network faster, reducing time-to-market. Dell MEC leverages Intel innovations including Xeon Scalable processors, security enhancements, Intel? SDKs like the OpenVINO™ toolkit, and innovative technologies in 4G and 5G. The solution provides an edge-native business platform that makes it easier for mobile network operators to offer proprietary mobile and edge computing services to enterprises that adopt a zero-trust security model.
Turnium and Juniper Networks: The two companies announced the availability of certified and validated Red Hat OpenShift cloud-native capabilities. These cloud-native Universal Customer Premises Equipment (uCPE) payloads include certified Turnium software-defined wide area networking (SD-WAN) and verified Juniper Networks cSRX firewalls. The uCPE architecture is based on container workloads, giving users the flexibility to choose features to deliver and manage reliable connectivity, security, and other capabilities to accelerate the deployment of edge applications running on Intel and other uCPE architectures.
Fixed Access: Using Red Hat OpenShift, Intel and Red Hat also recently introduced a new cloud-native, fixed access-based blueprint. The blueprint encourages broadband ISVs to adopt open source projects, including Intel Xeon Scalable processors and Intel Ethernet 800 Series network adapters. The technology facilitates fixed access transformation by encouraging an open source strategy and brings the ecosystem together. The open source strategy is designed to meet the performance and flexibility required to transform fixed access to a converged edge cloud.
“Our silicon, software, and engineering expertise, combined with our strengths in open source, enables CSPs and enterprises to implement cloud native faster,” said Jeni Panhorst, vice president of Intel’s Data Platforms Group and general manager of the Network and Edge Platforms Group. Networking, thereby increasing agility. Given the endless array of hardware solutions available to network architects and an overwhelming choice of options, the Intel and Red Hat partnership will bring ecosystems together, allowing enterprises to optimize applications and business processes. “
“Automakers’ efforts to reduce the size, weight, and cost impact of batteries over the entire life cycle of a vehicle and to extend battery-backed range will have a huge impact on their market share and competitiveness. As more old electric vehicles reach end of life, automakers will even compete for value derived from so-called secondary batteries recovered from end-of-life vehicles.
By: Norbert Bieler, Director of Electric Business Development, ADI, and Paul Hartanto-Doeser, Technical Specialist, Electric Systems, ADI
Tesla’s massive investment in a battery “gigafactory” and Volkswagen’s plans to build six dedicated battery production plants in Europe by 2030 point to the fact that batteries have become the most strategic part of the auto industry.
Automakers’ efforts to reduce the size, weight, and cost impact of batteries over the entire life cycle of a vehicle and to extend battery-backed range will have a huge impact on their market share and competitiveness. As more old electric vehicles reach end of life, automakers will even compete for value derived from so-called secondary batteries recovered from end-of-life vehicles.
But news about battery developments often highlights research into new, sometimes very exotic, materials that are expected to store more charge than current lithium technology. For the battery management system (BMS), the part that monitors the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) of the battery, it often goes unnoticed. In fact, new wireless battery management system (wBMS) technology, developed by Analog Devices and pioneered by General Motors in its modular Ultium batteries, promises to give automakers new competitive advantages throughout the battery life cycle— From the first assembly of battery modules to running in electric vehicles, to disposal, and even to the cascade utilization of batteries.
Following GM’s announcement of the Hummer EV, the first of many wBMS-equipped models, ADI has launched a series of production programs that demonstrate how wireless-based technology can transform the design, production, service, and disposal of electric vehicle batteries.
Cost, space, weight and design issues associated with wired connections in batteries
ADI’s inspiration for developing the wBMS technology came from an analysis of communication wiring defects in conventional EV battery packs. The analysis draws on ADI’s expertise: ADI provides the most accurate conventional BMS on the market, and in wireless communications, ADI is one of the leaders in 5G radio technology. It has also developed very powerful mesh networking technology for industrial environments.
In a conventional EV battery, wiring is used to support communication between each cell in the battery pack and an Electronic control unit (ECU), which regulates the operation of the battery to ensure it provides Power to the vehicle.
This need for communication inside the battery reflects the complex architecture of a large battery pack: it consists of modules, each of which contains multiple battery cells. Natural production differences mean that each battery cell has its own characteristics within rated tolerances. To maximize battery capacity, life and performance, key parameters of battery operation – voltage, charge/discharge current and temperature – need to be monitored and recorded individually for each module. This is the job of the unit monitoring unit in the BMS.
However, the data of each battery is only useful after it reaches the ECU of the BMS, which controls the way each module is powered and withdrawn from the battery, and maintains the safety function of the battery.
Therefore, EV batteries need some way to transmit data from each module (where voltage, current, and temperature are measured) to the ECU’s processor (see Figure 1). Traditionally, these connections have been made through wires: the advantages of wired connections are well known and well understood.
Figure 1. Typical complex, multi-component wired BMS network (left) and simpler arrangement enabled by Analog Devices’ wBMS technology (right)
But the drawbacks are quite numerous: the copper wiring harness is heavy, taking up space that would provide more power capacity if filled with batteries. In addition, connectors may fail mechanically. In other words, wires add development effort, manufacturing cost, and weight, while also reducing mechanical reliability and available space, resulting in reduced mileage. By getting rid of the wiring harness, automakers also gain new flexibility to design the form factor of the battery pack to suit the design requirements of the vehicle.
The complexity of battery wiring harnesses also makes battery pack assembly difficult and expensive: wired battery packs must be manually assembled and terminated. This is a costly and dangerous process because the high-voltage battery modules of electric vehicles are charged. In order to maintain the safety of the assembly process and protect the workers on the production line, strict safety protocols are implemented.
ADI’s modular and scalable wBMS system platform offers the advantage that OEMs can fully automate battery pack assembly. With the (signal) harness removed, the only connections needed for the battery module are the power terminals, which can easily be done by the robot in an automated process. By eliminating manual labor, OEMs can also eliminate safety risks for assembly line workers (see Figure 2).
Figure 2. wBMS technology eliminates signal wiring harnesses to support automated robotic production of complete battery packs
The scalable architecture of the Ultium module also helps reduce GM’s battery pack costs as GM implements wBMS technology. While Ultium batteries will debut in 2021, such modules will be deployed in all GM models, not just heavy-duty vehicles, but all road vehicles — from high-performance and premium cars to small vehicles. As Kent Helfrich, executive director of global electrification and battery systems at GM, mentioned in a September 2020 press release, “Scalability and reduced complexity are themes for our Ultium battery – the wireless management system is the crux of this amazing flexibility. key driver”.
So there are plenty of good reasons for automakers to replace BMS wires with robust wireless technology in new EV battery systems. However, the advantages of Analog Devices’ wBMS technology are not limited to new vehicles sold in franchise dealerships’ front offices.
• Service – Secure wireless functionality means that the condition of the battery pack can be easily analyzed by diagnostic equipment in an authorized repair shop without having to touch the battery pack. If a fault is detected, the faulty module can be easily removed and replaced. Wireless configuration simplifies the installation of new modules in battery systems.
• Disposal – Disposal arrangements for recyclable metals and potentially hazardous materials in battery packs require approval and regulation. Simple connections and the elimination of communication harnesses make battery module removal easier and faster than wired batteries.
• Cascade utilization – Future EV batteries may outlive the vehicle itself: Tesla President Elon Musk estimates that the typical battery life before total failure is equivalent to “a million miles.” As a result, a market for secondary batteries that recover batteries from end-of-life electric vehicles and reuse them for applications such as renewable energy storage systems and power tools is emerging. This creates a new source of value for EV companies responsible for recycling or disposing of batteries in end-of-life EVs.
wBMS technology enables easy reading of key battery data for each smart module, which means the condition of each battery can be determined individually. For example, the data can provide information about a module’s SOC and SOH. Combined with the data from the initial production of the modules, the secondary battery modules will be optimized for use in the next application, and each module is sold with a detailed set of specifications available for review. The ready availability of data increases the resale value of the mod.
Complete Wireless System for Battery Data Collection
wBMS technology leverages two of ADI’s longstanding strengths: sensory measurements and radio frequency communications. wBMS technology is a complete solution that automakers can easily integrate into battery pack designs. It provides a wireless battery monitoring controller (wCMC) unit for each battery module and controls the communication network through the wireless manager unit. The communication network wirelessly connects multiple battery modules to the ECU.
In addition to the wireless section, each wCMC unit includes a state-of-the-art battery management system that enables high-accuracy measurements of various battery parameters for the application processor to analyze the battery’s SOC and SOH.
Robust Communication Architecture
The wireless network protocol implemented by ADI in the wBMS system is centered on the reliability and safety requirements of the automotive industry. with Bluetooth®Unlike consumer-oriented wireless technologies such as Wi-Fi networks, wBMS solutions are based on network-wide time synchronization technology and are dedicated to enabling reliable and secure communications under all operating conditions, which are required for automotive applications.
The use of wBMS in GM’s production electric vehicles has proven its reliability in the harshest environments: wBMS-based batteries have operated hundreds of thousands of kilometers in more than 100 on- and off-road test vehicles, ranging from desert to A variety of environments and the harshest conditions in the cold north. Proven reliability and success with all OEM safety and robustness certifications make wBMS soon available in a wide variety of passenger vehicles.
ADI has also adopted a wBMS to support automakers’ compliance programs with the ISO 26262 functional safety standard. Radio technology and network protocols have been developed in such a way that the system copes well with noisy environments and uses sophisticated encryption techniques to provide secure communication between the monitoring unit and the manager. Security measures prevent unintended recipients, such as criminals or hackers, from spoofing the data transmitted over the wireless network. In addition, the received content is exactly the same as the sent data and cannot be modified in-between, and the intended recipient is able to know exactly which source sent the message.
Lifecycle management of battery value
Throughout the battery pack’s life cycle, from initial assembly to disposal to echelon utilization, the wBMS capabilities embedded in battery packs ensure vehicle manufacturers and their owners can easily track battery condition, maintain performance and safety, and make it valuable maximize. The entire system – including the interaction between the battery monitoring unit of the battery module and the ECU – is controlled by ADI technology, with configuration settings defined by the manufacturer.
The wBMS technology is also supported by ADI’s Battery Lifecycle Insight Service (BLIS) technology, enabling traceability, production optimization, monitoring in storage, early failure detection and life extension through edge and cloud-based software.
Together, wBMS and BLIS technologies enable automakers to achieve higher returns on their investment in battery pack development and production, improve the economics of their EV business strategies, and help accelerate the market transition to a low-carbon, sustainable future of personal mobility.
About the author
Norbert Bieler is an electrical engineer specializing in microelectronics and has 25 years of combined experience in automotive management with Siemens VDO, Continental Automotive and ADI. Norbert’s expertise lies in vehicle systems, architecture and functionality, as well as electronics for interiors, chassis and powertrains. For the past 15 years, he has focused on hybridization and electrification of the entire vehicle drivetrain. He leads business development and strategy, as well as the development of electric vehicle programs that define new technologies and innovations for automakers, Tier 1 suppliers and strategic partner networks.
Paul Hartanto-Doeser is an electrical engineer with 20 years of experience in low power radio frequency, wireless communications and microelectronics. He has held various engineering roles in various application areas such as automotive access control systems, semiconductor test systems, and wireless sensor networks. Since 2021, he focuses on qualified technologies dedicated to vehicle electrification. He is passionate about working with clients to build innovative systems using cutting edge technologies.
Replacing screw-on incandescent bulbs with LED light bulbs has many advantages. Typically, we connect small (5-9) LEDs in series and use a Power supply to convert the line voltage to a low voltage (usually tens of volts), which draws about 350 to 700mA. Determining how best to isolate users from the same line voltage requires careful consideration and trade-offs. We can achieve isolation in the power supply, but also in the LED installation process. Physical isolation of LEDs is a common approach in some low-power designs because it allows the use of lower-cost non-isolated power supplies.picture1 A typical LED light alternative is shown. The power supply in this example is a non-isolated power supply, which means that the isolation for user high voltage protection is embedded in the package rather than the power supply. Clearly, the space for the power supply is extremely small, posing a packaging challenge. In addition, the power supply is buried inside the package, which hinders heat dissipation and affects efficiency.
picture1 Lamp replacement makes power space extremely small
picture2 A non-isolated circuit powering the LEDs from a 120 volt AC supply is shown. It contains a rectifier bridge that powers the buck power stage. The buck regulator is an “inverted version” with power switch Q2 in the loop and circulating diode D3 connected to the power supply. During the on-time of the power switch, the current is regulated through a source resistor. While this is fairly efficient (80%-90%), there are several drawbacks to this circuit that limit efficiency. When on, the power switch must carry the full output current, and when the power switch is off, the output current flows through the circulating diode. Also, the voltage across current sense resistors R8 and R10 is about 1 volt. All three voltage drops are significant compared to LED voltages of 15 to 30 volts and can limit power supply efficiency. More importantly, these losses contribute to the temperature rise of the bulb. The luminous capacity of the LED will gradually decrease, and this capacity is closely related to the operating temperature of the LED. For example, 70oAt condition C, the 30% reduction in LED light output exceeds 50,000 hours, while at 80oUnder C conditions, this time is only 30,000 hours. The problem of heat generation is further complicated by the fact that the bulbs are installed in “tubes” which tend to hinder heat dissipation and are not conducive to convective cooling.
picture2 Buck regulators implement a simple off-lineleddriver
LED manufacturers create higher voltage emitters by connecting several LEDs in series on a common substrate. These high voltage emitters bring either lower cost or higher power efficiency. With these high voltage products, we only need to use a set of rectifiers and a ballast resistor, enabling a lower cost power supply method. Although this type of power supply can produce a fairly good power factor, it is inefficient because a significant portion of the input voltage is spent on the ballast resistor, resulting in 30%-50% of the LED power loss. However, it can be used in some small and low-power applications. However, in some high-power applications, the low efficiency makes it useless.picture3Another alternative is shown: it uses a boost power supply. Much of the circuit is the same as the method above. However, switching, diode and current sensing losses are much smaller, resulting in efficiencies as high as 90% to 95%. In addition, the circuit has a good power factor of 97%.
picture3 Using a boost power supply to increaseled drive efficiency
picture4 forpicture1-2 Photo of the power supply described in the schematic. Even though such power supplies produce roughly the same output power, there are some notable differences that affect power supply size. The Inductor size of a boost power supply is significantly smaller because of its lower energy storage requirements. A buck power supply has a larger resistor than a boost power supply. This resistor is a dummy load resistor (picture2 R20 shown) is used to determine when the dimmer turns on the Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR). The reason for this is that the dimmer has an electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression capacitor next to the triac component, which is at a higher voltage than the power supply under no-load conditions. This disrupts the power supply, resulting in unstable dimming. This is not necessary when using a boost power supply, since the LED is connected to the input through the boost inductor, providing enough load to it, so the above problem is not an issue. The back of the board is not shown in the diagram, but as the schematic shows, the buck power supply has more low-level circuitry. Therefore, the boost power supply has lower power consumption, which is extremely important in space-constrained applications such as LED bulb replacement.
picture4 Boost power supplies are smaller and more efficient
In conclusion, high voltage LEDs can help increase the lifespan of screw-in LED bulbs due to their low power consumption and low temperature rise. It does this by using a boost power supply instead of a buck power supply, thereby improving power efficiency. The losses of a boost power supply are about half that of a buck regulator. In addition, the boost power supply has fewer components, better power factor, smaller size, and easier dimming with triac components. Next time, we will discuss the ripple voltage and current of offline power supply capacitors, so stay tuned.
For more details on this article and other power solutions, please visit: www.ti.com.cn/power.