The Design Scheme of Electric Actuator Realized by PROFIBUS Fieldbus Technology

PROFIBUS is a field bus technology used for factory automation workshop level monitoring and field device level data communication and control. The distributed digital control and field communication network can realize the monitoring from the field equipment level to the workshop level, thus providing a feasible solution for realizing the comprehensive automation of the factory and the intelligentization of the field equipment. Profibus field bus redundancy technology is a technology that improves reliability through dual profibus ports.

1 Overview

PROFIBUS is a field bus technology used for factory automation workshop level monitoring and field device level data communication and control. The distributed digital control and field communication network can realize the monitoring from the field equipment level to the workshop level, thus providing a feasible solution for realizing the comprehensive automation of the factory and the intelligentization of the field equipment. Profibus field bus redundancy technology is a technology that improves reliability through dual profibus ports.

An electric actuator is a driving device that uses electricity and converts control signals into corresponding linear or rotary motion through a motor. The Electronic control part of the Keyuan SY series integrated electric actuator includes position feedback device, torque sensing device, motor drive and protection device, logic control device and digital communication module, etc. These devices are all installed in the actuator in a compact electrical in the control box.

Implementing profibus fieldbus redundant communication interface on the electric actuator is beneficial to integrate the electric actuator into the profibus fieldbus control system and improve the communication reliability.

2. Overall design of electric control of profibus redundant bus actuator

  The Design Scheme of Electric Actuator Realized by PROFIBUS Fieldbus Technology

Figure 1: The overall design of the electronic control of the Profibus redundant bus-type actuator

The overall design of the electronic control of Keyuan SY series PROFIBUS DP redundant bus type electric actuator is shown in Figure 1 above. SY series electric actuator adopts the scheme of dual processor division of labor and cooperation.

One processor is called the actuator control processor, which is responsible for input signal processing, Display and status indication processing, control of motor drive and protection modules, position feedback (encoder), torque sensing device, and communication with another processor. Control and processing of executive agency tasks.

Another processor is called profibus communication processor, which is responsible for dual redundant profibus bus communication. The control commands from the field bus control system (PROFIBUS master station), the actuator data, status, alarm and the setting and modification of the actuator parameters that need to be sent to the profibus master station are all handled by the profibus communication processor.

3. Profibus redundant bus communication design

Figure 2: System Redundancy


Figure 3: Flying Redundancy

For profibus redundant slaves, the profibus slave redundancy specification must be observed. The Profibus slave redundancy specification specifies two redundancy methods, namely System Redundancy (SR redundancy) as shown in Figure 2 and Flying Redundancy (FR redundancy) as shown in Figure 3.

Keyuan SY series profibus DP redundant bus-type electric actuators support both redundant methods. If the profibus field bus control system supports SR redundancy (for example, Siemens CPU 400-H series products), connect the actuator to the control system according to the SR redundancy mode, as shown in Figure 2. At this time, the two bus interface addresses of the profibus DP redundant bus type actuator of Keyuan are equal (#m=#n). When the interface of the Primary Slave (master slave) is damaged or the communication cable of the master slave is interrupted, the SR redundant The redundant master station sends the parameterized command for channel switching. After the redundant slave station receives the parameterized command for channel switching, it automatically switches the Backup Slave (standby slave station) to the Primary Slave. The switching process is seamless and will not cause I /O loss of data.

If the profibus field bus control system supports FR redundancy, the actuator will be connected to the FR system according to the connection method shown in Figure 3. The two interfaces of the redundant slave station are connected to the same bus. At this time, the addresses of the two bus interfaces of the profibus DP redundant bus type actuator are not equal (#m≠#n), and the address of the Primary Slave should be less than 62 , the address of the Backup Slave is the address of the Primary Slave + 64.

If the profibus redundant bus control system supports parameterized command switching, the redundant slave station will switch according to the parameterized command; if the profibus redundant bus control system does not support parameterized command switching, the redundant slave station will judge whether it needs to be switched. .

4. Summary

With the further improvement of automation technology, Profibus redundant bus control system will be further popularized and used. Keyuan SY series profibus redundant bus-type electric actuators can be perfectly integrated with the profibus redundant bus control system, maximize the advantages of profibus fieldbus, improve the communication reliability and maintainability of electric actuators, and save wiring costs for customers And later maintenance costs, thereby improving the core competitiveness of electric actuator products.

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Samsung released a black technology paper: replicating the brain with storage

A few days ago, the Samsung Electronics research and development team and Harvard University jointly published a research paper. They proposed a new method to “reverse engineer” (replicate) the human brain on a memory chip.

According to reports, the research paper was published in the scientific journal “Nature Electronics” (Nature Electronics), and the title of the paper is “copy-and-paste brain-based neuromorphic electronics”. The authors of the paper include Ham Don-hee, a researcher at the Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology and a professor at Harvard University, Park Hong-kun, a professor at Harvard University, Hwang Sung-woo, CEO of Samsung SDS, and Kim, vice chairman of Samsung Electronics. Ki-nam.

copy brain

In the paper, the researchers point out that nanoelectrode arrays developed by the two authors could be used to replicate the neural network connectivity map of the human brain. This connection diagram can then be copied into a high-density 3D network of solid-state memory chips.

Through this copy-and-paste technique, the authors hope to create a memory chip that can mimic the computing properties of the human brain, such as low Power consumption, rapid learning processes, environmental adaptability, automation and cognitive properties. This target technology has surpassed existing human scientific research achievements.

According to reports, the human brain includes countless neurons, and there are complex network connections between neurons, which realize the functions of the brain. Therefore, if you want to reverse engineer the human brain, you must first figure out the network connection diagram of neurons.

Born in the 1980s, neuromorphic engineering aims to mimic the structure and function of the human brain’s neural network on a semiconductor chip. But this is an extremely challenging technique, and until now, scientists have not figured out how many neurons are connected to each other to make up the complex functions of the human brain.

Faced with such complex challenges, the goal of neuromorphic engineering has since been adjusted. Instead of imitating the human brain through a chip, it develops related chips through revelation from brain function.

return to the original goal

However, the paper published by Samsung Electronics and Harvard University this time proposes another method that can return to the original goal of neuromorphism of brain reverse engineering.

It is reported that nano-electrodes can enter a large number of brain neurons, and can use their high sensitivity to record current signals. This massive intercellular parallel recording system can obtain information on neural network maps, discover the direction of interconnections between neurons, and demonstrate the strength of interconnections. From these recorded data, researchers can extract a graph of neural network connections.

The above network connection diagram can then be pasted into a network built by a memory chip. The memory chip can be the flash memory used in solid-state drives on the market, or a newer memory chip such as RRAM. Researchers can program memory chips so that the conductivity between each chip reflects the strength of the brain’s neuronal connections.

Quick copy

The paper goes a step further and proposes a strategy for quickly copying neural network connectivity graphs across memory chip networks. By directly connecting the electrical signals recorded between these cells, the memory chip network can learn and express the brain’s neural network connectivity map. In other words, researchers can directly download a map of the brain’s neural network connections and copy it to a memory chip.

It is estimated that the human brain has more than 100 billion neurons, and the number of so-called “synaptic connections” is more than 1,000 times that of neurons. Therefore, a memory chip capable of replicating the neural network diagram of the brain must be capable of storing 100 trillion neurons. Volume of virtual neuron and synaptic data.

Through the 3D memory integration technology, the above-mentioned huge number of memory chips can be integrated on a single chip. Samsung Electronics is currently the world’s leading manufacturer of 3D memory integration technology.

In a press release, Ham Don-hee, one of the authors of the paper, said: “The research vision we propose is very ambitious, and if we move toward this heroic goal, we will simultaneously advance machine intelligence, neural The frontier of science and semiconductor technology.”

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Silicon Labs and Edge Impulse Accelerate Machine Learning Applications

Beijing, China – February 3, 2021 – Silicon Labs (also known as Silicon Labs, NASDAQ: SLAB), a leading supplier of chips, software and solutions dedicated to building a smarter, more connected world, announced a partnership with leading edge Edge Impulse, an on-device machine learning (ML) development platform, has teamed up to enable rapid development and deployment of machine learning applications on Silicon Labs EFR32 wireless system-on-chip (SoC) and EFM32 microcontrollers (MCUs). The Edge Impulse tool enables sophisticated motion detection, sound recognition, and image classification on low-Power, memory-constrained remote edge devices.

Research shows that 87% of data science projects never reach production, often due to artificial intelligence (AI)/machine learning challenges. With this new collaboration between Silicon Labs and Edge Impulse, device developers can generate and export machine learning models directly to the device or Simplicity Studio (Silicon Labs’ integrated development environment) at the click of a button, in digital Machine learning can be implemented in minutes.

“Silicon Labs believes that our efforts to infuse machine learning into edge devices will make the Internet of Things smarter,” said Matt Saunders, vice president of IoT at Silicon Labs. “Edge Impulse provides secure, private, and easy-to-use tools that enable machine learning in It saves developers time and money and brings amazing new user experiences to real-world business applications ranging from predictive maintenance and asset tracking to monitoring and people detection.”

Through integrated deployment in Simplicity Studio, Edge Impulse enables developers to quickly create neural networks on a variety of Silicon Labs products for free. By embedding state-of-the-art TinyML models in EFR32 and EFM32 devices such as MG12, MG21, and GG11, the solution enables the following:

· Real sensor data collection and storage

Advanced signal processing and data feature extraction

· Machine Learning

· Deep Neural Network (DNN) model training

· Optimize embedded code deployment

Edge Impulse tools can also leverage Edge Impulse’s Edge Optimized Neural (EON™) technology to optimize memory usage and inference time.

Zach Shelby, co-founder and CEO of Edge Impulse, said: “The applications of embedded machine learning in industrial, enterprise and consumer are endless. Integrate machine learning with Silicon Labs’ advanced development tools and multi-protocol solutions. , will bring customers excellent wireless development opportunities.”

Support for Edge Impulse is ready for Silicon Labs’ Thunderboard Sense 2 and wireless SoCs and MCUs. For more information, visit: Edge Impulse will be hosting a hands-on workshop at the tinyML Summit (March 22-26, 2021) to learn more about the AI/ML capabilities of the Silicon Labs platform. The first 250 workshop registrants will receive a free Silicon Labs development kit to use during the event.

About Edge Impulse

Edge Impulse is the leading embedded machine learning development platform used by more than 1,000 enterprises worldwide in more than 10,000 machine learning projects. Our mission is to enable the ultimate development experience for machine learning at scale on embedded devices for sensing, audio and computer vision. From onboarding to production machine learning operations (MLOps) in 5 minutes, we provide highly optimized machine learning capabilities that can be deployed on a variety of hardware from MCUs to CPUs.

About Silicon Labs

Silicon Labs (also known as Silicon Labs, NASDAQ: SLAB) is a leading provider of silicon, software and solutions dedicated to building a smarter, more connected world. Our award-winning technologies are shaping the future of IoT, Internet infrastructure, industrial automation, consumer electronics and automotive markets. Our world-class engineering teams create products focused on performance, energy efficiency, connectivity and simplicity.

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Godson Zhongke is caught in another infringement dispute, will the “Hanxin Incident” make a comeback?

Once upon a time, the appalling “Hanxin” fraud incident caused the development of “Chinese chip” to stagnate for 13 years, leaving a lot of haze on the Chinese chip industry. However, the shadow has not completely dissipated, and the Chinese chip industry has made waves again!

Recently, the “one-paper statement” of Shanghai Xinlianxin has caused a thousand waves in the chip industry, causing widespread concern and discussion in the industry. Shanghai Xinlianxin said that LoongArch may have a risk of intellectual property infringement and has initiated legal proceedings against it, which is currently underway.

The dark past of China Chip’s “Hanchip fraud” incident

The CPU, equivalent to the brain of a computer, is regarded as the “Mount Everest” of the semiconductor industry because of the high R&D threshold and the difficulty of ecological construction.

If a country has the core technology of chips, it is equivalent to standing at the forefront of international scientific and technological development!

China is a country with extremely high demand in the chip market in the world, but for a long time the chip self-sufficiency has been seriously insufficient. This is because the chip industry has always been China’s weakness, from the earliest large computer IBM era to the PC era Intel , AMD era, the chip has always been monopolized by the United States.

So, why didn’t China develop its own chips in the early days?

In fact, as early as 20 years ago, China has attached great importance to the field of independent chips. From the early years, the policy of full support for people, money, and materials in the field of chips has been tilted. Later, it was cautious in this field. Thanks to a shocking fraud incident in the field – the Hanxin fraud incident!

The Hanxin fraud incident has played a very negative role in the development of China’s chip industry. The industry commented that Hanxin’s fraud has stagnated the development of “China Chip” for 13 years. .

Here we briefly talk about the whole story of Hanxin’s counterfeiting incident and its impact on China’s chip industry.

First of all, let’s start with the protagonist of the incident, Chen Jin, a former professor at Shanghai Jiaotong University. Before the “Hanxin Shade” was exposed, Chen Jin had countless halos lingering on him, returnees and young scholars. He had worked as a chip design manager at Motorola Semiconductor Headquarters and served as a senior chief engineer.

It is precisely because of such a “glamorous” resume that he served as the chief designer of “Hanxin” as soon as he returned to China. In fact, Chen Jin lived up to expectations. It only took 16 months to officially announce the successful development of “Hanxin No. 1”, and was hailed by the industry as “an important milestone in the history of China’s chip development”.

Chen Jin’s “great success” not only brought flowers and applause, but also a prestigious title and a lot of research and development funds. He was specially hired by Shanghai Jiaotong University as a Changjiang Scholar, served as the dean of the School of Microelectronics, and received hundreds of millions of R&D funds. In addition, he also became CEO of Shanghai Silicon Intellectual Property Exchange Center and President of Shanghai Hanxin Technology Co., Ltd.

In 2006, Tsinghua University BBS posted “Hanxin Shady”, anonymously reporting Chen Jin’s Hanxin CPU forgery. According to this leaked post, in 2002, Chen Jin went to the United States and asked his former colleagues at Motorola to download the source code of a Motorola chip without permission. With this source code, Chen Jin made “Hanxin 1″. No”.

However, the chips produced in this way cannot be used in actual system applications, because the chips are not coded. Later, the reporters’ in-depth excavation not only revealed more fraudulent details of the “Hanxin” processor, but also revealed that Chen Jin’s resume and education were fraudulent. The once “national hero” has instantly become a liar who deceives the world!

Although the whole incident is very tortuous, it can be summed up in one sentence: a returnee bought the chip of the former company, asked a decoration worker to sand the LOGO with sandpaper, and then used it as a chip developed by himself, easily defrauding the national government. billion in R&D spending.

The Hanxin fraud incident has caused immeasurable losses to China’s independent chip development plan. What is even more distressing is that what should have been a critical opportunity for the development of China’s chips was destroyed by a shocking scam. This not only caused us to suffer huge economic losses, but also missed the best opportunity for development, so that even today, our chip industry still cannot get rid of the situation of “being controlled by others”. Involved in the Hanxin fraud incident, the development of Shanghai Silicon Intellectual Property Exchange Center cannot escape the huge shadow; similarly, if Loongson’s breach of contract is verified, more unwitting Loongson sublicensers may also be implicated and damaged.

Suspicion looms over Loongson Zhongke, will the “Hanxin Incident” make a comeback?

Godson is one of the earliest companies in China to start developing domestic CPUs. The others are Tianjin Feiteng, Huawei Kunpeng, Zhaoxin Integration, Shenwei Technology and Haiguang Information.

About Loongson, the well-known story is that in May 2001, Loongson was born in the Loongson research group supported by the Knowledge Innovation Project of the Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Hu Weiwu voluntarily invited Ying to serve as the chief scientist and form a team.

However, in the past 20 years of development, Godson has not been smooth. It has been shrouded in the suspicion of infringement and breach of contract for several times. In 2006, it was pointed out by MIPS for plagiarism. Holding MIPS Corporation) issued a warning letter.

Back in 2003, with Loongson 1, the Loongson team successfully applied for the national 863 key project, and there were only two indicators to complete the 863 task, the CPU frequency reached 500MHz, and the space CPU2000 (the internationally recognized CPU test software at that time) scored in 300 or more.

For these two goals, the Loongson team invested a lot of manpower and material resources, and finally designed Loongson 2 within a year. The score of this chip on space CPU2000 exceeded that of Intel’s Pentium 2 at that time.

However, the good times did not last long. In 2005, after the market research company In-Stat published a report that Godson 2 may be suspected of infringement, it immediately aroused strong attention in the industry.

In 2006, MIPS, an American semiconductor design company, claimed that 95% of Godson’s instruction set is similar to MIPS, which is plagiarism. At that time, Loongson said that although Loongson 2 had similarities with MIPS R1000 in design ideas, it was not a replica of the latter, nor did it copy the design ideas of any other chip products. Analysts at the time believed that if the Loongson 2 manufacturer and MIPS could not reach an agreement, it would likely lead to the first intellectual property conflict between Chinese and American chip companies.

Unfortunately, it was also in the same year that the Hanxin fraud incident was exposed. As a typical representative of China’s core, Godson, which was just starting at that time, was also involved in it, and doubts such as “foreign core Chinese shell”, “Godson and Hanxin are the same thing”, “Godson and Hanxin cool the Chinese heart” are overwhelming.

However, three years later, MIPS announced that the single-function products in the structure of MIPS32 and MIPS64 were authorized to Loongson, and the two parties carried out long-term strategic cooperation with restrictive terms (no modification, no sublicense of IP, etc.), but this brought Loongson’s “Cheating of funds” and “pseudo-independence”.

Moreover, the marketization of Loongson’s products was not smooth at that time, mainly because Loongson, which was tired of dealing with patent disputes and plagiarism, failed to launch a popular Electronic product, and the advancement of the software ecosystem was even more difficult.

In April 2021, Loongson released three volumes of the autonomous command system architecture “LoongArch”. The public held a grand press conference for Loongson, but only the cover was released in the name of national security and confidentiality education, which inevitably raised questions. Then, Godson released the “Loongson Architecture Reference Manual Volume 1: Infrastructure (V1.00)”, and declared that “The Godson architecture has three characteristics: complete autonomy, advanced technology, and compatible ecology. The Godson architecture starts from the top layer of the entire architecture. From planning, to the functional definition of each part, to the code, name, and meaning of each instruction in detail, the architecture can be redesigned independently, with full autonomy.”

However, shortly afterward, the issue of the incomplete publication of the contents of the second and third volumes of the manual by Godson “LoongArch” once again caused the industry to question whether it has truly achieved full “independence”. Another intellectual property dispute. . . . There are rumors in the industry that volume 2, volume 3, and suspicion of infringement have reached Intel and AMD. Does LoongArch touch various instruction sets, so the full text and author have not been published? Historically, the instruction sets published by various domestic units include Ark, Zhongzhi, Zhongtianwei, etc. … All in all, only LoongISA and LoongArch are kept secret, and it is necessary to keep secrets in order to build an ecology, which will inevitably lead to criticism.

Godson, Hanxin’s treatment of the source of the product has touched the depth of China’s protection of intellectual property rights. 13 years ago, Hanxin wiped off the imprint on the chip. Will LoongArch after 13 years change the cover of the various instruction integrations? Is this practice for patriotism or cheating? In the past, Hanxin may have been The dispute between Chinese and American companies, and now the dispute between Godson and Xinlianxin, does not need to be entangled in patriotism, but is a dispute between two Chinese companies over the boundaries of intellectual property laws and regulations. If the long-term interests of the country are used as the driving force, a precedent-setting intellectual property case can be used to realistically demonstrate the level of intellectual property protection in my country, and it will be subject to a strong and highly objective inspection by the legal community. It will help and promote China’s booming semiconductor and chip industries. Going to the global market will be of great benefit.

Re-engage in tort disputes and wait for legal judgment

After 20 years of hard work, it has finally come to this day. When Godson Zhongke announced the “launch of the independent command system architecture LoongArch” and was preparing for the IPO on the Science and Technology Innovation Board, it encountered the “breach of contract infringement” crusade by Xinlianxin. .

The protagonist of the lawsuit is also a Chinese company, namely Shanghai Chiplink, which was established in 2018. According to public information, Chiplink has obtained the exclusive and irrevocable commercial operation rights of MIPS Technology in China from Wave Computing in early 2019 (including more than 30 MIPS customers), and has been granted permanent global patent licenses for CPU cores, including all infrastructure, all MIPS instruction set architectures compatible with CPU core licenses and core sublicenses, more than 1,000 MIPS-related patents, optimized Fab In the process, the performance of existing CPU cores, the development of new CPU cores and derivative cores, support for all advanced technology activities and international projects of domestic and foreign customers, as well as all their technologies and derived secondary research and development rights and naming rights, and traceable litigation rights .

Since then, Godson Zhongke has become a customer of Xinlianxin. In addition to the agreement with MIPS to pay the authorization fee every five years, Godson Zhongke also needs to pay royalties to it every quarter. Since the first quarter of 2019, Godson Zhongke has paid this fee to Xinlianxin until the first quarter of 2020.

According to a related report from, “After undertaking the business of MIPS, Chiplink has sorted out all the business of MIPS in China. In the process, it has found that Loongson Zhongke has breached the contract. For the specific breach of contract, Chiplink It is believed that there are three aspects, one is the secondary development of the MIPS instruction set in violation of the regulations, the second is the sub-authorization of the MIPS IP in violation of the regulations, and the third is the failure to pay the relevant authorization fees and underpayment of the royalties.”

In this context, at the beginning of June this year, CoreLink issued a statement saying that after more than a year of communication with Godson Zhongke to no avail, Godson Zhongke still insisted on announcing “completely abandoning MIPS to issue an independent command system”, etc. The propaganda and reporting of the content deviate from the facts, which damages the legitimate rights and interests of CoreLink, and over the years, Godson Zhongke has not fulfilled the relevant licensing agreements as agreed, including failing to pay it on time and in full for the royalties and other related fees for technology licensing.

In response to the statement of Xinlianxin, Godson Zhongke responded on the same day that Xinlianxin continued to publish various malicious slander, defamation letters of Godson Zhongke and Godson Zhongke products and independent intellectual property rights to Godson Zhongke’s partners and the public. information, which seriously violated the legitimate rights and interests of Loongson Zhongke and caused extremely bad social impact. Loongson Zhongke has taken legal action and will investigate the legal responsibility of Xinlianxin and related personnel.

But the core problem is that Godson Zhongke did not provide any substantive reply or legal evidence to all the issues mentioned in the statement of the core unit. This further increases the industry’s doubts about Godson Zhongke’s substantial infringement and breach of contract and questioned “Hanxin No. 2”.

The next day, Xinlianxin issued a response to its statement. While affirming the status of Loongson Zhongke in the industry, it suggested that Godson Zhongke abide by industry practices, immediately release the complete contents of the “LoongISA” and “LoongArch” manuals, and publish all “LoongISA” and “LoongArch” manuals in a timely manner. LoongArch” research and development personnel list, to face the sound.

However, so far, Loongson Zhongke has not responded positively to the second voice of the core, nor has it released the complete contents of the “LoongISA” and “LoongArch” manuals.

In the development process of domestic CPUs including Godson, there are more detours than straight ones. Whether it is the dilemma of public opinion, the cost of the structural route or the pressure of market-oriented transformation, it has never escaped negative news such as “plagiarism, infringement, breach of contract”.

Hu Weiwu once mentioned in an interview with reporters that the so-called independent innovation actually has three modes of definition: original innovation, introduction, digestion, absorption and re-innovation, and integrated innovation. What kind of “independent innovation” is the complete manual disclosed? Why is Godson’s technology still not as good as other manufacturers after more than 20 years of development? Right”, “Loong ISA is extended from MIPS instruction sets of various generations” and other official propaganda materials from Godson Zhongke, which may only be proved by Godson Zhongke’s legal documents.

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RC Differentiator Circuit, Integrator Circuit and Low Pass Filter Circuit LPF

If the rectangular pulse train signal is applied to the RC series circuit with the initial value of voltage zero, the transient process of the circuit will occur periodically. Obviously, the impulse response of the RC circuit is the continuous process of charging and discharging the capacitor.

1. Rectangular Impulse Response of RC Circuit

If the rectangular pulse train signal is applied to the RC series circuit with the initial value of voltage zero, the transient process of the circuit will occur periodically. Obviously, the impulse response of the RC circuit is the continuous process of charging and discharging the capacitor. as the picture shows.

If the amplitude of the rectangular pulse is U, the pulse width is tp. The voltage across the capacitor can be expressed as:

The voltage across the resistor can be expressed as:

That is, when 0 to t1, the capacitor is charged; when t1 to t2, the capacitor is discharged through the resistor R.

(It can also be explained in this way: the voltage across the capacitor cannot mutate, but the current can, so it is reflected in the figure that the voltage across the resistor has mutated.)

2. RC Differential Circuit

Take the two ends of the resistor in the RC series circuit as the output terminal, and select the appropriate circuit parameters to make the time constant τ The above formula shows that the output voltage uo

3. RC integrating circuit

If the two ends of the capacitor of the RC circuit are used as the output end, and the circuit parameters satisfy the condition of τ > > > tp (the pulse width of the rectangular pulse), it becomes an integrating circuit. Since this circuit capacitor charges and discharges very slowly, the voltage ur

The above formula shows that the output voltage uo

The integrator is essentially a low-pass filter, and the longer the integration time, the lower the cutoff frequency.

4.time constant

In RC circuit, time constant=R*C;

In the RL circuit, the time constant = L/R.

In RC circuit:

Integrating circuit, the output of the circuit is both ends of the capacitor, and the time constant is large;

Differential circuit, the output of the circuit is both ends of the resistor, and the time constant is small.

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“Green Intelligent Manufacturing Winning Plan” Ecological Assembly to Promote the Integration of Digital Economy and Real Economy

The signing ceremony of the strategic cooperation between the International Economic and Technological Cooperation Center of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and Schneider Electric and the launching ceremony of the green intelligent manufacturing win-win plan were held in Beijing on March 18. The second season of the “Green Intelligent Manufacturing Winning Program” was officially launched, and was highly recognized by the National Cooperation Center of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and jointly organized with Schneider Electric, together with AsiaInfo Security, Thundersoft, Amazon Cloud Technology, and Tsinghua University Global Industry Research Institute , bringing together a strong green intelligent manufacturing ecosystem, empowering small and medium-sized enterprises to develop highly applicable digital solutions, stimulating the potential of industrial scenarios with innovative IT technologies, and jointly promoting the efficient and sustainable development of China’s industry.

The signing ceremony of the strategic cooperation between the National Cooperation Center of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and Schneider Electric

The second quarter of the “Green Smart Manufacturing Winning Program” was officially launched

Li Yikai, deputy director of the International Economic and Technical Cooperation Center of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, said that 2021 is the first year of the “14th Five-Year Plan”, and it is imperative to promote the deep integration of the digital economy and the real economy, which requires all parties to reach a consensus and join hands peers. The Green Intelligent Manufacturing Win-Win Program will build a win-win platform to help innovative companies develop replicable digital solutions based on real customer needs, and drive the healthy development of the entire ecosystem.

As an expert in digital transformation in the field of global energy management and automation, Schneider Electric has leading industry technologies and rich practical experience in the field of green intelligent manufacturing. Enable digital transformation. At the same time, we also see that the emergence and development of more and more new technologies are profoundly affecting the digital transformation journey of industrial enterprises.

“The successful practice of the first win-win plan in 2020 allows us to explore a path based on industrial scenarios, unite with ecosystem partners, integrate innovative technologies, and finally provide first-line manufacturing companies with a road that can be implemented, reusable, and industry-leading solutions. ,” said Pang Xingjian, senior vice president of Schneider Electric and head of China’s industrial automation business. “This year, with the in-depth cooperation with the National Cooperation Center of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the participation of more partners, the Winning Program will surely provide a broader stage for ecosystem partners and participating companies, and integrate the strengths of hundreds of companies into green and intelligent manufacturing. The truth.”

Powerful alliance to fully empower SMEs

Today, with the rapid change of IT technology, we see the possibility of bringing new technologies into the industrial field to solve new challenges. At the same time, we also see that small and medium-sized enterprises with technological innovation potential are constrained in practical combat due to lack of OT knowledge. . How to better integrate IT technology and OT knowledge to meet the new demands of industrial digitalization, and how to fully empower small and medium-sized enterprises in business, technology, market and other directions, this reflects the responsibility and responsibility of a large enterprise, and the green intelligent manufacturing win-win plan should be implemented and live.

The Winning Program will recruit and select small and medium-sized enterprises with potential for technological innovation in the manufacturing field to enter the business; senior engineers, product experts and industry experts will provide technical guidance and share market experience; then, participating companies will enter the field at close range to communicate with customers in depth , understand customer needs; finally create a joint innovation solution that meets market needs and customer satisfaction.

The “Green Smart Manufacturing Winning Plan” in the second quarter will continue to fully empower SMEs

During this process, the sponsor and various partners will provide practical support to the selected companies. As one of the organizers, the National Cooperation Center of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology will provide industry experts and other mentor resources for participating companies, and coordinate local and industrial resources to find common business scenarios for excellent solutions. Schneider Electric will combine its own experience in the dual transformation of energy and digitalization, based on EcoStruxure’s open technology architecture, and run through the three-tier architecture of interconnected products, edge control, software applications and services, helping enterprises to realize the whole life of products and production. cycle through fusion. At the same time, Schneider Electric’s innovation and investment department will also provide outstanding companies with support from different dimensions such as business acceleration, capital, and business model innovation.

In addition to assigning a team of experts and mentors to provide technical guidance, all parties also fully support SMEs from their own product and technology fields. AsiaInfo, one of the co-organizers, as a leader in China’s network security software field, will provide eligible participating companies with free access to the DSaaS cloud host security protection suite for a certain period of time, to prevent the participating companies from cloud network security risks; intelligent operation Thundersoft, a system product and technology provider, will provide training and verification services for the “TurboX Inspection Industrial Vision Platform” and the use of 5G laboratory test instruments for participating companies that have passed the preliminary selection, relying on Thundersoft’s leading operations The system and AI technology help the deep optimization of industrial vision and other scenarios and the integration of the cloud, empowering and helping start-ups; cloud service partner Amazon Cloud Technology will rely on its rich experience and best practices in serving global industrial customers to help participants in innovation. Startups at all stages of the Win Program provide expert guidance and technical support to help them build high-standard smart manufacturing solutions by leveraging Amazon Cloud’s world-leading, extensive and in-depth cloud technologies and services, as well as global infrastructure. The Global Industry Research Institute of Tsinghua University will make use of its profound accumulation in the field of production, education and research to provide guidance for the enterprises entering the business. The Smart Factory Research Institute, which also continues to provide support, is mainly responsible for demand extraction, PoC definition and process management, training, etc. Chuangyebang is responsible for the recruitment, recommendation and management of small and medium-sized emerging enterprises.

Real industrial scene, ecological circle joint creation and win-win

Innovation and creation are never water without a source or a tree without roots. The reason why the first phase of the Winning Plan has been widely recognized and supported is precisely because it starts from a real industrial scene, allowing participating companies to have a definite goal. The entrants in 2020 have handed over a number of satisfactory answers. At the end of the competition, all participating companies have submitted industry-leading solutions, and two start-ups signed a memorandum of strategic cooperation with the demander on the spot. All are being deployed.

The Winning Plan for the second quarter of 2021 selected a number of challenging and common industrial scenarios, including the predictive maintenance of key equipment in the cement industry, the predictive maintenance of key equipment in the food and beverage industry, the active safety management platform for Power plant personnel, and snack food. Industry smart factory solutions, digital yard bucket wheel stacker and reclaimer unmanned control system, digital carbon management, etc. Taking the food and beverage industry as an example, this requirement requires health assessment and early warning of a few key equipment that affect the stable operation of the production line, such as sterilizers, filling machines, and freezers, to identify potential abnormalities in the equipment, and carry out Predictive maintenance. Under the guidance of Schneider Electric and the mentor group, the participating enterprises will conduct in-depth exchanges with the demanders of various scenarios to provide guarantee for the development of a PoC verification solution that can be implemented.

A flower alone is not spring, a hundred flowers bloom in spring and the garden is full. We look forward to more outstanding small and medium-sized enterprises to join in, join the practice of green intelligent manufacturing with our achievements in the professional field, and start a new journey of green intelligent manufacturing with ecosystem partners, and win the new future of digital industry.

The Links:   CM450DX-24S1 7MBR100VX120-50

The great god dug out Android 11 hidden new changes: see you for the first time

On February 20, Google officially released the Android 11 developer preview, which brought many new features, but there are still more unfinished features hidden in the system by Google. In this regard, XDA has spared no effort to dig. Hidden features, the latest achievement is a new menu for the Power key.

Generally speaking, after long-pressing the power button on native Android, the power menu will be displayed vertically on the right side of the evaluation, including options such as SOS, restart, and shutdown.

However, on the Pixel 2 XL that has flashed the Android 11 developer preview, XDA found that the menu has been moved to the top of the screen, and more interestingly, the “Home” character appears on the menu, which looks like a placeholder symbol.

It’s clear that Google is going to add some new options to “Home,” but what will it be?

Initially XDA thought that some options for Google Pay would be arranged here, and then some great gods found that a support list of “valid device types” appeared in related services, which was full of various smart home devices, in other words, this place may add home automation Control options (similar to Mijia’s control plug-in?).

In other words, Android 11 is about to natively support some functions of the smart home, which also indicates that Google may release some related products, let’s wait and see.

The Links:   SKIIP 83AC12ISMT10 6MBI8L-120

Looking at the new ecology of China’s integrated circuits from the perspective of EDA and IP technology

Since 2020, affected by the spread of the epidemic, the operating rate of most companies in the semiconductor industry chain has been lower than expected; Blizzard, earthquakes, fires and other emergencies have caused damage to the production lines of local fabs and electronics factories, further aggravating the shortage of industry supply . On the other hand, the demand for Electronic products driven by the “home economy” continued to rise, and automotive electronics also rebounded against the trend as the epidemic eased. The global semiconductor industry has encountered a supply chain crisis, and the chip shortage problem has intensified. In addition, the United States, Japan and other countries have successively strengthened the control of China’s semiconductor industry, blocked the supply chain of Chinese companies, and controlled their import and export, thereby curbing the development of China’s semiconductor industry. Under the industry dilemma of “lack of cores” and “stuck neck”, the voice of localization replacement is getting louder, and the upstream and downstream of China’s integrated circuit industry are paying more and more attention to independent research and development, and collaboratively build a localized supply chain.

On October 14th, the 19th China Communication Integrated Circuit Technology Application Symposium (CCIC) and Qingdao Microelectronics Industry Development Conference were held in Qingdao West Coast New Area. At the meeting, Zhang Yanchuan, Secretary-General of the China Institute of Communications, said that as a key force leading technological and industrial transformation, the integrated circuit industry has gradually penetrated into all aspects of the economic and social fields, becoming an important support for the development of the digital economy and the transformation of industrial intelligence. In the face of such great changes unseen in a century, China’s integrated circuit industry needs to further develop its layout, insist on independently tackling key core technologies, promote the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, and actively cooperate with the industrial chain to jointly build an integrated circuit industry ecology.

From the perspective of the integrated circuit industry chain, chip design, wafer manufacturing, packaging, testing and other links are indispensable. Among them, as the core technologies in the upstream of the integrated circuit industry chain, EDA and IP are known as “the jewels in the semiconductor crown”. Yu Chengbin, co-CEO of Xinyaohui Technology Co., Ltd. and IEEE Fellow, said that for a long time, the EDA and IP markets have been dominated by foreign giants. The United States and Europe alone account for more than 94% of the global market, while China’s EDA and IP markets only account for 3 %about. The importance of EDA and IP to chip design is self-evident. It is imminent for China to conquer EDA and IP technology and seize the market.

Domestic EDA and IP industries face severe challenges

The core of chip design, manufacturing and packaging and testing is EDA/IP, materials and equipment. EDA and IP are in the upstream of chip design. In short, chip design is to use EDA tools to convert code into actual circuit diagrams by selecting IP design modules that meet the requirements and are verified to be reusable. At the same time, EDA and IP are also the weakest links in China’s integrated circuit industry chain. It is urgent to achieve breakthroughs through independent innovation and accelerate the integration of local enterprises into the integrated circuit industry chain and value chain.

First look at the development of domestic EDA. Since the 1980s, the domestic EDA industry has started a long-term R&D and layout, but due to various factors, no substantial progress has been made. For a long time, domestic EDA has been in a state of stagnant development. Since 2008, with the support of national policies, domestic EDA has finally ignited a weak fire. After years of hard work, domestic enterprises such as Huada Jiutian, Xinhe Semiconductor, and Guangli Microelectronics have gradually shown their vitality in the market.

According to Liu Weiping, chairman of Beijing Huada Jiutian Technology Co., Ltd., for a long time, domestic EDA and even the entire integrated circuit industry have been controlled by others, mainly facing the following challenges.

Incomplete products: Domestic independent EDA tools are relatively complete and mature in analog circuits, but in terms of digital circuits, many domestic EDA tools are in the development stage and have not yet fully supported the ability to support industrial development.

Technology and R&D investment: The EDA industry has high technical barriers and requires long-term R&D investment and technology accumulation. At present, compared with the three EDA giants (Synopsys, Cadence, Siemens EDA), the R&D investment of domestic EDA enterprises is obviously insufficient and scattered, which is not conducive to the technological breakthrough and innovation of EDA.

Shortage of high-end talents: According to the report of Founder Securities, there are about 1,500 EDA R&D personnel in China, of which only about 300 are actually doing R&D in local EDA enterprises.

Ecology and market: EDA is the link between chip design and manufacturing, and users are very sticky. As a latecomer, domestic EDA needs to compete with the mature products of international giants if it wants to enter the market and emerge as a newcomer. The difficulty can be imagined. . Therefore, coordinating the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain and constructing the local industrial ecology of EDA is crucial to the development of domestic EDA.

Like EDA, IP technology, which is also a deep element of hard technology innovation, is also an indispensable technological cornerstone of the entire chip industry chain. Yu Chengbin said that the overall output value of global IP is only about 4 billion US dollars, but it has stimulated the semiconductor industry of 500 billion US dollars. With the gradual migration of integrated circuits to advanced process nodes, the demand for the number of IP cores is increasing, which also puts forward higher requirements for driver specifications, functions, and costs. On the other hand, the IP core is constantly evolving according to the standard, how to ensure compatibility and reliability, and achieve excellent PPA performance has become the direction that domestic IP companies need to optimize and cultivate.

Domestic EDA and IP technology to overcome difficulties

As mentioned earlier, domestic EDA and IP still face many challenges, and in these challenges, we can often see huge market opportunities and find solutions. What domestic enterprises need to do is to insist on independent research and development, continuously consolidate their internal strength, and forge their own technical strength. From a technical point of view, domestic EDA tools and IP cores still have difficulties such as incomplete products and difficult technological breakthroughs. Liu Weiping mentioned that domestic enterprises must first solve the problem of “have or not”, and then uphold the spirit of innovation, make EDA tools well and fine, so that customers can choose and trust.

As introduced by Liu Weiping, the question of “is there or not” first settled on improving the EDA tool. Taking Huada Jiutian as an example, with the analog circuit simulation software as a breakthrough, the whole process design of LCD Panel is deeply studied, and finally it transitions to the full development of software such as the whole simulation process and digital back-end. In the stage of lack of technology, domestic EDA enterprises should also take point tools as the starting point, and gradually overcome them from point to point. On the other hand, M&A is also an important means to expand product matrix and strengthen technical barriers.

At this stage, Moore’s Law has reached the physical limit, the trend of hardware process innovation has gradually slowed down, and the importance of EDA software has gradually become prominent. Artificial intelligence, cloud computing and other technologies are gradually integrated and innovated with EDA software to realize the automation, intelligence, platformization and serviceization of EDA tools. Atomistic TCAD and automatic IP generation have gradually become the development trend of EDA software. Given that the development time is not long, China and international giants are still on the same starting line, and it is expected to become an opportunity for Chinese EDA enterprises.

Constructing a New Ecology of China’s Integrated Circuits

“At present, my country has become the world’s largest and fastest-growing integrated circuit market. Facing the impact of the epidemic and the complex and changing global industrial environment, my country’s integrated circuit industry continues to grow.” Deputy Director, Department of electronic Information, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Chang Dong Xiaoping said that my country’s integrated circuit industry as a whole shows strong development resilience and a good development trend. According to statistics from the China Semiconductor Industry Association, in the first half of 2021, the sales of my country’s integrated circuit industry was 410.29 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 15.9%. Among them, the sales of the design industry reached 176.64 billion yuan, an increase of 18.5% year-on-year; the sales of the manufacturing industry was 117.18 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 21.3%; the sales of the packaging and testing industry was 116.47 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase 7.6%.

Wu Hanming, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and dean of the School of Micro-Nano Electronics of Zhejiang University, emphasized at the meeting that scientific research is the means, industry is the goal, and production capacity is king. The development of the integrated circuit industry in the post-Moore era will face many challenges such as unclear technical direction, broad application scenarios, and market fragmentation. For domestic enterprises, this will be a rare window of opportunity. Huge innovation space and market space, loose equipment and conditions will be beneficial to small and medium-sized enterprises to carry out product research and development. Wu Hanming said that the domestic integrated circuit industry chain, universities, and research institutes should work together to promote the integration of integrated circuit production, education and research, and to strengthen the relationship between the integrated circuit industry and scientific research, the relationship between scientific research and teaching, and the relationship between teaching and the integrated circuit industry.

The development status and technology trends of the domestic EDA and IP markets are the epitome of the entire integrated circuit industry, and are also a problem that my country’s integrated circuit industry needs to overcome urgently. Dong Xiaoping said that my country’s integrated circuit market demand continues to expand, and domestic enterprises should vigorously promote the innovative application of integrated circuits in 5G, artificial intelligence, Internet of Things and other fields, adhere to technological innovation, application traction and market orientation, continuously optimize industrial layout, and build mutually beneficial cooperation. Winning the industrial chain and supply chain.

The Links:   G156BGE-L01 7MBR50NF-060 LCD-CENTER

Saving labor cost by printing 3d hand model

Saving labor cost by printing 3d hand model

With the maturity of SLA light-curing 3D printing technology, some smart tablet manufacturers have begun to use 3D printers to include in their enterprise plans. The 3D printing tablet model is completely proofed according to the original shape of the plan, with low error. Compared with the traditional prototype, it saves the cost of proofing, shortens the manufacturing cycle of the prototype model, ensures the confidentiality of the product development planning scheme, and greatly improves the work efficiency and product development. According to the feedback from the manufacturer using the SLA 3D printing prototype of Harbin Industry, the business volume has increased rapidly and the labor cost has been saved by 40% since the use of the D printer prototype for about a year since March. Let’s see how 3D can help hand board manufacturers save 40% of labor costs!

The hand board is also called “model” and also called “first board” many years ago “. It is not only an important link to verify the feasibility of the product, but also an important link to find out the shortcomings of the product. Shortcomings. A more direct and effective method of shortcomings is to refer to the handboard to improve the shortcomings and deficiencies in the planning. The handboard can solve the above problems well. The handboard processing method has also evolved from manual to milling machines, engraving machines and CNC processing to today’s 3D printing manual models. Although many handboard manufacturers still Although they are used for CNC processing, the disadvantage of CNC has become a headache for the owners of many handicraft factories.

What are the problems of traditional hand board manufacturer CNC CNC machine tools in making hand board models?

1、 High dependence on labor: The complexity of CNC machine tool processing in traditional hand board manufacturers requires the proficiency of workers, while the labor cost in China has increased year by year in the past decade. In 1997, the salary of CNC CNC machine tool workers was 1000 yuan, and now the per capita salary is 6000-8000 yuan. Artificial masters have the right to speak. The younger generation of workers are unwilling to do this kind of work, and there is no successor to the technology. The workshop is noisy, the environment is poor, and there is a serious loss of automotive parts in the hand board industry.

2、 It is impossible to make a hand board with complex structure: some hand boards with very high accuracy, circuitous or hollow, and complex pure curved surface structures, CNC CNC machine tools are often unable to make them, even if they are reluctantly made, it will take a long time, and the cost is also very high. CNC machine tools with internal structure need to be separated and then assembled together. Many hand board manufacturers have actually lost their orders.

3、 Error prone: The accuracy standard of CNC machine tool itself causes some errors, especially when the operator is not skilled enough. This means that design defects will not be found before production, resulting in costly rework and time loss.

3D hand board model

What are the advantages of using printers in 3D prototype factory?

1. Short production cycle, without cutting tools and molds: CAD digital model is directly processed and formed, with fast processing speed and short production cycle, without cutting tools and molds. CNC CNC machine tools usually need one week to deliver, while CNC machine tools usually need one week to print and one day to deliver. CNC CNC machine tools need to be on duty manually, while 3D printing does not need manual intervention. Basically, unattended production can be realized in the daytime or at night. The production efficiency is significantly improved and the cycle is shortened.

2. Reduce the cost of complex hand models: 3D printing technology can handle prototypes and molds with complex structures, or use traditional and mold. Industrial 3D uses printer SLA light curing technology to illuminate the surface of light curing materials (mainly photosensitive resin) with a specific intensity of laser focus, so as to make point to line and line to surface layer by layer. Ordinary hand boards or hand boards are relatively complex, and printing time and materials are not difficult. Resin 3D printing can be used to make some CNC machine tools that cannot manufacture precision structures, such as hollow-out, barb, hollow hand board model, etc.

3. There is no need for high education or senior experience. Simple and easy to use: Although 3D printing technology is very new, it is very simple to operate because most 3D printing processes are completed by computer intelligence. Users who use industrial 3D printers can start operation as long as they have received 3D training. It does not require high education or senior experience, and is easy to operate.

4. Environmental protection and health, high material utilization: traditional CNC machine tool workshop will produce a lot of dust and noise. In such a working environment, it is easy to cause anxiety and fatigue, which many people cannot bear. 3D printing technology, these problems do not exist. The sound produced by the industrial 3D printer when running is less than 10 decibels, which is smaller than the sound people usually communicate with. Its matching 3D printing material is also environmentally friendly and harmless. Unlike CNC CNC lathes, 3D printing hand boards are made by carving. Most of the materials are wasted, and the utilization rate is less than 35%. The utilization rate of 35% nylon 3D printing hand boards is more than 75%, which greatly reduces the waste cost of materials.

5. Customization accelerates product design innovation: 3D printers can quickly create a tangible physical model. The reduction of costs will inevitably lead to many industries being more willing to innovate in design, which in fact brings better experience to consumers of products. The demand for personalized customization will also be the continuous improvement of 3D with the popularization of printing technology.

Why do many tablet manufacturers choose 3D 3D printers?

Leading technology, efficient and stable

Considering the particularity of the hand board industry, industrial 3DR&D3D printers are compatible with many software hand board manufacturers at home and abroad. You can select appropriate software according to your needs, such as one-key support and graphic file repair function software, to achieve a perfect connection between metal 3D printing technology and the hand board field. The high-speed galvanometer scanner is used as the core hardware to ensure the high efficiency and stability of the machine.

Material performance advantages:

Industrial three-dimensional light-cured resin has the characteristics of high temperature resistance, high toughness, high strength, softness and transparency, which can meet the requirements of different hand boards, so as to achieve the perfect presentation of products.

Supply chain advantages:

3D has the R&D capability of the overall 3D printing sculptural and statues, which can comprehensively improve the quality of products and services. Industrial 3D is not only a manufacturer and seller of equipment, but also a comprehensive solution provider of 3D printing industry and technical services. The company focuses on the research and development of printing equipment, manufacturing and industrial application solutions of three D companies; Focus on the construction of 3D printing modernization, intelligence and digital industrial manufacturing scenes; Focus on 3D R&D and process development and printing related technical equipment.

Products that can process include:

sls-3d-printing,sla-3d-printing,slm-3d-printing, mjf-3d-printing, fdm-3d-printing,dlp-3d-printing, rapid-prototyping, cnc-machining, 3d-modeling,3d-scanning

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Influence of 3D printing on mechanical manufacturing and automation

3D printing technology is widely used because of its flexibility and convenience. Printing technology involves different molding processes and material classification.

There is no uniform standard now. According to the volume of the equipment, it can be divided into desktop, medium and large 3D printers; It can be divided into: aerospace, military, industrial, civil 3D printers, etc. 3D printing propsis a comprehensive technology combining mechanical engineering technology, computer software technology, 3D model technology, data processing technology and other disciplines. To a certain extent, it meets the needs of the development of mechanical manufacturing, and brings ultra-fast molding speed, unparalleled printing speed, high material utilization rate and short production cycle in industrial production, greatly improving the degree of automation and digitalization.

At present, XYZPrinting partpro150_ XP, mechanical manufacturing and automation are mainly based on computers, combined with mechanical equipment and automation, and through a series of manufacturing technologies, such as computer-aided design and manufacturing, flexible manufacturing system, and then constitute a computer integrated manufacturing system. Its applications mainly include CNC machines and machining centers.

The impact of printing on mechanical manufacturing and automation mainly has two aspects: positive and negative.

It has two impacts on the development of mechanical manufacturing and automation. 3D printing medical uses a variety of materials, but the material itself has limitations and hazards. Especially, the more difficult it is to degrade materials, which directly threatens human health and safety. The promotion of 3D printing and laser scanning technology may also lead to a large number of imitation products, which will bring some challenges to the development of the design industry and commodity costs, such as furniture products, tools, and even intellectual property issues.

In the information age, printing in chip manufacturing still has some limitations. Because the relevant parts of different materials are difficult, it is necessary to improve and improve between energy consumption, high cost and low efficiency. 3D Printing jewellery is an important embodiment and component of the development of mechanical manufacturing automation.

Compared with traditional printers, the liquid or powder emitted by 3D printers are different printing materials, such as light curing, rapid direct manufacturing and molding, layer-by-layer control computer superposition, and finally the physical object can be obtained. The workflow of 3D printer is to create a project, use CAD software, copy the model to 3 printers, print by setting various adjustable parameters, and specifically compose control elements, mechanical elements, print heads, consumables and media If all processes and parts are automated, 3D printing technology and mechanical manufacturing automation will be more closely linked.

Products that can process include: 3d printing applianc, 3d printing sand table

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