The characteristics and classification of cutting tools for precision parts processing on CNC lathes

In order to meet the processing requirements of precision parts of CNC lathes, CNC machine tools have many performance requirements for the tools used. Compared with the tools of ordinary machine tools, CNC lathe tools and tool systems have the following characteristics:

  1. Generalization, regularization and serialization of blades or knives.
  2. Standardization and typification of insert or tool geometric parameters and cutting parameters.
  3. The blade or tool material and cutting parameters must match the material of the workpiece to be processed
  4. The service life of the blade or cutter is high, and the machining rigidity is good.
  5. The positioning reference accuracy of the blade in the cutter bar is high.
  6. The shank must have high strength, rigidity and wear resistance.

Turning tools are also classified according to the following three categories

  1. Classification according to processing purpose

Lathes are mainly used for the processing of rotating surfaces, such as cylindrical surface, conical surface, arc surface, thread, grooving and other cutting processing. Therefore, CNC lathe tools can be divided into external turning tools, inner hole turning tools, thread turning tools, grooving tools and other types.

  1. Classification according to the shape of the tip

CNC turning tools are divided into three categories according to the shape of the tool tip, namely, pointed turning tools, arc turning tools and forming turning tools.

(1) Pointed turning tool The side of the turning tool characterized by a straight cutting edge is called the pointed turning tool. The tool tip (tool position point) of this type of turning tool is formed by the intersection of the linear main and secondary cutting edges. The pointed turning tool is mainly used for turning linear surfaces such as internal and external contours and linear grooves.

(2) The shape of the main cutting edge forming the arc-shaped turning tool is a circular arc with small roundness error or line profile error. Every point on the arc edge of the turning tool is the cutting point of the tool. Therefore, the tool position point of the turning tool is not on the arc edge, but on the center of the arc edge.

The arc-shaped turning tool is mainly used for the processing of precision parts, especially the smoothly connected forming surface and the surface with high precision and surface quality requirements. Such as inner and outer circular arc surfaces with high precision requirements and inner and outer conical surfaces with high dimensional accuracy requirements. The arc-blade turning tool, which is naturally or polished by the pointed turning tool, also belongs to this category.

(3) Forming turning tools are commonly known as model turning tools. The contour shape of the processed parts is completely determined by the shape and size of the cutting edge of the turning tool. Commonly used such turning tools include small radius arc turning tools, non-rectangular turning tools, thread turning tools and so on.

  1. Classification according to the structure of the turning tool

According to the structure of turning tools, CNC turning tools can be divided into three types: integral turning tools, welded turning tools and mechanically clamped turning tools.


(1) The integral turning tool mainly refers to the integral high-speed rigid turning tool. Usually used for small turning tools, thread turning tools and forming turning tools with complex rotation. It has the advantages of high bending strength, good impact toughness, simple manufacturing, convenient sharpening, and sharp edge.

(2) The welded turning tool is made by fixing the carbide blade on the body of the tool by welding, and then sharpening it. This turning tool is simple in structure, convenient to manufacture, and has good rigidity, but has low bending strength and poor impact toughness. The cutting edge is not as sharp as high-speed steel turning tools, and it is not easy to make complex tools.

(3) The mechanical clamping turning tool is a turning tool with a standard cemented carbide replaceable blade mounted on the tool holder by mechanical clamping. It is currently the most widely used turning tool on precision parts processing lathes. .

Dongguan PTJ Precision Machinery Parts Co., Ltd. focuses on: CNC finishing supporting services for automation, aviation, basic scientific research, optical fiber, communications, semiconductors, electronics, medical equipment, auto parts suspension and other equipment accessories.

Processed materials: aluminum alloy, stainless steel, magnesium alloy, titanium alloy, nickel-based alloy (invar alloy/Invar alloy, kovar alloy/Kova alloy), high temperature alloy, tungsten copper alloy, engineering plastics And other special difficult-to-process materials.

Processed products: precision mechanical parts, medical precision parts, aviation parts, instrumentation parts, optical fiber communication parts, electronic product parts, auto parts, shock absorbers, suspension parts, non-standard components, connectors, High-standard products in industries such as alloy parts, hardware enclosures, and radiators.