Great inventions and characters will always be verified and remembered by history. In the development of integrated circuits, many people have made outstanding contributions, which have brought earth-shaking changes to our lives.
1. Shockley, Budding, Bratton (three)
inventor of the transistor
The advent of the transistor was the herald of the microelectronics revolution, and it also sounded the horn for the birth of the integrated circuit.
In December 1947, a research group composed of Shockley, Bardeen and Bratton of Bell Labs in the United States developed a point-contact germanium transistor. After the appearance of the transistor, people can use a small, low-Power Electronic device to replace the large, power-consuming electronic tube.
The advent of the transistor
In 1956, Shockley, Bardeen, and Bratton were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their invention of the transistor. Shockley, known as the “Father of the Transistor”, used his reputation to recruit a group of outstanding young scientists, including the famous “Eight Rebels”, which laid the foundation for the subsequent establishment of a large number of well-known semiconductor companies.
2. Jack Kilby
father of integrated circuits
The emergence of integrated circuits has created a new era in the history of electronic technology and laid the foundation for modern information technology.
On September 12, 1958, Kilby developed the world’s first integrated circuit, successfully realized the idea of integrating electronic devices on a piece of semiconductor material, and passed the inspection of the top management of Texas Instruments. Remember the day when integrated circuits replaced transistors, paved the way for the development of various functions in electronic products, and dramatically reduced costs, enabling the advent of microprocessors, ushering in a new era in the history of electronics. Kilby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000 for inventing the integrated circuit.
3. Robert Noyce
Science and business giants
Commercially produced integrated circuits have brought semiconductors into the commercial era.
Robert Noyce invented a commercially available integrated circuit on the basis of Kilby, which made the semiconductor industry enter the “commercial era” from the “era of invention”. In 1971, Noyce’s Intel successfully integrated 2,300 transistors on a 12-square-millimeter chip to make a programmable computing chip including an arithmetic unit and a controller, which is what we now call. Said central processing unit (CPU), also known as microprocessor, this is also the world’s first microprocessor – 4004. Since then, Intel has developed rapidly, from zero revenue in 1968 to today’s turnover of more than 35 billion US dollars.
4. Joan Hurney
Established the position of silicon in the electronics industry
Semiconductor production has been revolutionized.
In 1959, Jean Hoerni invented the planar process, a process called optical etching. First, he used a piece of germanium or silicon, and then he sprayed it with a layer of something called photoresist. If you put light on it, the photoresist becomes hard, and then you can use a special chemical to remove the photoresist that wasn’t hit by the light. So Herney created a photomask, which is like a negative with a cluster of tiny holes to filter out the dirty stuff, and then let it flip through the light. After the chemical wash, as long as the photoresist is left on the metal plate, impurities will not scatter underneath. To solve the reliability problem of planar transistors, it has revolutionized semiconductor production. Called “one of the most significant achievements of the 20th century”, it said it established silicon as a key material in the electronics industry.
5. Gordon Moore
Moore’s Law The Cornerstone of Silicon Valley
Moore’s Law, like an irresistible force of nature, has ruled Silicon Valley and even the global computer industry for more than 30 years.
In 1965, Moore left the silicon crystal workshop one day, sat down, took a ruler and a piece of paper, and drew a sketch. The vertical axis represents the evolving chip, the horizontal axis is time, and the result is a very regular geometric growth. The findings were published in the 35th issue of the journal Electron that year. This casual work is also by far the most significant paper in the history of semiconductors.
The greatness of Moore’s Law is that engineers in the semiconductor industry follow this law, not only doubling the number of transistors every 18 months, but also means that chips with the same performance can be halved in size every 18 months, reducing costs. half.
6. Andy Grove
king of microprocessors
Processors bearing the “Intel Inside” brand logo have become the heart of 80% of the world’s computers.
Since taking over the CEO baton of Intel in 1987, Andy Grove has continuously broken the tradition and challenged the existing logic of strategic thinking, making the microprocessor, the heart of the digital revolution, beating strongly, providing a steady stream of resources for the digital age. power.
In 1986, Grove put forward the new slogan “Intel, Microprocessor Company”, and resolutely gave up the storage business and transferred Intel’s main business to microprocessors. In the same year, Intel launched the 386 series processors, and successively launched the 486 and Pentium series central processing units. The performance of the processors became more and more powerful and the speed became faster and faster, and the era of personal computers came. “Intel Inside” once became the gold standard of the industry, resounding around the world and changing the world.
7. Hu Zhengming
Inventor of various new structural devices such as FinFET
Significant contribution to the development and future miniaturization of semiconductor devices.
Professor Hu Zhengming led the research on BSIM. This mathematical model was selected as the first and only international standard for designing chips by the Transistor Model Council, which was attended by 38 major international companies in 1997; he invented FinFET, which has attracted international attention. and many other new structural devices; proposed the physical mechanism of hot electron failure, developed a method to quickly predict the device life with impact ionization current, and proposed the physical mechanism of thin oxide layer failure and the method of using high voltage to quickly predict the life of thin oxide layer; Pioneered a computer numerical simulation tool for IC reliability based on device reliability physics.
8. Zhang Zhongmou
The founder of the integrated circuit foundry industry
One person defines an industry, and one person makes the entire integrated circuit industry more dynamic.
In 1987, Zhang Zhongmou founded the world’s first professional foundry company, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd., which ushered in the era of semiconductor foundry. The TSMC model created two new industries – foundry and Fabless. Due to the elimination of the expensive wafer manufacturing process, the overall threshold of the integrated circuit industry has been lowered, and a large number of new and dynamic integrated circuit design companies have been born, bringing new vitality and creativity to the entire integrated circuit industry. The era of integrated circuit subdivision is coming, and a new and more dynamic integrated circuit industry is unfolding in front of us.
Development History of Semiconductor Integrated Circuits